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 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA 1975

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(Adopted on January 17, 1975 by the Fourth National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China at its First Session)



PREAMBLE
The founding of the People's Republic of China marked the great victory of the new-democratic revolution and the beginning of the new historical period of socialist revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat, a victory gained only after the Chinese people had waged a heroic struggle for over a century and, finally, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, overthrown the reactionary rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism by a people's revolutionary war.

For the last twenty years and more, the people of all nationalities in our country, continuing their triumphant advance under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, have achieved great victories both in socialist revolution and socialist construction and in the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, and have consolidated and strengthened the dictatorship of the proletariat,

Socialist society covers a considerably long historical period. Throughout this historical period, there are classes, class contradictions and class struggle, there is the struggle between the socialist road and the capitalist road, there is the danger of capitalist restoration and there is the threat of subversion and aggression by imperialism and social-imperialism. These contradictions can be resolved only by depending on the theory of continued revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat and on practice under its guidance.

We must adhere to the basic line and policies of the Communist Party of China for the entire historical period of socialism and persist in continued revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat, so that our great motherland will always advance along the road indicated by Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought.

We should consolidate the great unity of the people of all nationalities led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants, and develop the revolutionary united front. We should correctly distinguish contradictions among the people from those between ourselves and the enemy and correctly handle them. We should carry on the three great revolutionary movements of class struggle, the struggle for production and scientific experiment; we should build socialism independently and with the initiative in our own hands, through self-reliance, hard struggle, diligence and thrift t and by going all out, aiming high and achieving greater, faster, better and more economical results; and we should be prepared against war and natural disasters and do everything for the people.

In international affairs, we should uphold proletarian internationalism. China will never be a superpower. We should strengthen our unity with the socialist countries and all oppressed people and oppressed nations, with each supporting the other; strive for peaceful coexistence with countries having different social systems on the basis of the Five Principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence, and oppose the imperialist and social-imperialist policies of aggression and war and oppose the hegemonism of the superpowers.

The Chinese people are fully confident that, led by the Communist Party of China, they will vanquish enemies at home and abroad and surmount all difficulties to build China into a powerful socialist state of the dictatorship of the proletariat so as to make a greater contribution to humanity.

People of all nationalities in our country, unite to win still greater victories!


CHAPTER ONE

GENERAL PRINCIPLES
ARTICLE 1
The People's Republic of China is a socialist state of the dictatorship of the proletariat led by the working class and based on the alliance of workers and peasants.

ARTICLE 2
The Communist Party of China is the core of leadership of the whole Chinese people. The working class exercises leadership over the state through its vanguard, the Communist Party of China.

Marxism-Leninism-Mao Tsetung Thought is the theoretical basis guiding the thinking of our nation.

ARTICLE 3
All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people. The organs through which the people exercise power are the people's congresses at all levels, with deputies of workers, peasants and soldiers as their main body.

The people's congresses at all levels and all other organs of state practise democratic centralism.

Deputies to the people's congresses at all levels are elected through democratic consultation. The electoral units and electors have the power to supervise the deputies they elect and to replace them at any time according to provisions of law.

ARTICLE 4
The People's Republic of China is a unitary multi-national state. The areas where regional national autonomy is exercised are all inalienable parts of the People's Republic of China.

All the nationalities are equal. Big-nationality chauvinism and local-nationality chauvinism must be opposed.

All the nationalities have the freedom to use their own spoken and written languages.

ARTICLE 5
In the People's Republic of China, there are mainly two kinds of ownership of the means of production at the present stage: socialist ownership by the whole people and socialist collective ownership by working people.

The state may allow non-agricultural individual labourers to engage in individual labour involving no exploitation of others, within the limits permitted by law and under unified arrangement by neighbourhood organizations in cities and towns or by production teams in rural people's communes. At the same time, these individual labourers should be guided onto the road of socialist collectivization step by step.

ARTICLE 6
The state sector of the economy is the leading force in the national economy.

All mineral resources and waters as well as the forests, undeveloped land and other resources owned by the state are the property of the whole people.

The state may requisition by purchase, take over for use, or nationalize urban and rural land as well as other means of, production under conditions prescribed by law.

ARTICLE 7
The rural people's commune is an organization which integrates government administration and economic management.

The economic system of collective ownership in the rural people's communes at the present stage generally takes the form of three-level ownership with the production team at the basic level, that is, ownership by the commune, the production brigade and the production team with the last as the basic accounting unit.

Provided that the development and absolute predominance of the collective economy of the people's Commune are ensured, people's commune members may farm small plots for their personal needs, engage in limited household side-line production, and in pastoral areas keep a small number of livestock for their personal needs.

ARTICLE 8
Socialist public property shall be inviolable. The state shall ensure the consolidation and development Of the socialist economy and prohibit any person from undermining the socialist economy and the public interest in any way whatsoever

ARTICLE 9
The state applies the socialist principle: "He who does not work, neither shall he eat" and "from each according to his ability, to each according to his work."

The state protects the citizens' right of ownership to their income from work, their savings, their houses, and other means of livelihood.

ARTICLE 10
The state applies the principle of grasping revolution, -promoting production and other work and preparedness against war; promotes the planned and proportionate development of the socialist economy, taking agriculture as the foundation and industry as the leading factor and bringing the initiative of both the central and the local authorities into full play; and improves the people's material add step by step on the basis of the constant growth of social production and consolidates the independence and security of the country.

ARTICLE 11
State organizations and state personnel must earnestly study Marxism-Leninism-Maoism Tsetung Thought, firmly put proletarian politics in command, combat bureaucracy, maintain close ties with the masses and wholeheartedly serve the people. Cadres at all levels must participate in collective productive labour

Every organ of state must apply the principle of efficient and simple administration. Its leading body must be a three-in-one combination of the old, the middle-aged and the young.

ARTICLE 12
The proletariat must exercise all-round dictatorship over the bourgeoisie in the superstructure, including all spheres of culture. Culture and education, literature and art, physical education, health work and scientific research work must all serve proletarian politics, serve the workers, peasants and soldiers, and be combined with productive labour

ARTICLE 13
Speaking out freely, airing views fully, holding great debates and writing big-character posters are new forms of carrying on socialist revolution created by the masses of the people. The state shall ensure to the masses the right to use these forms to create a political situation in which there are both centralism and democracy, both discipline and freedom, both unity of will and personal ease of mind and liveliness, and so help consolidate the leadership of the Communist Party of China over the state and consolidate the dictatorship of the proletariat.

ARTICLE 14
The state safeguards the socialist system, suppresses all treasonable and counter-revolutionary activities and punishes all traitors and counter-revolutionaries.

The state deprives the landlords, rich peasants, reactionary capitalists and other bad elements of political rights for specified periods of time according to law, and at the same time provides them with the opportunity to earn a living so that they may be reformed through labour and become law-abiding citizens supporting themselves by their own labour

ARTICLE 15
The Chinese People's Liberation Army and the people's militia are the workers' and peasants' own armed forces led by the Communist Party of China; they are the armed forces of the people of all nationalities.

The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China commands the country's armed forces.

The Chinese People's Liberation Army is at all times a fighting force, and simultaneously a working force and a production force.

The task of the armed forces of the People's Republic of China is to safeguard the achievements of the socialist revolution and socialist construction, to defend the sovereignty, territorial integrity and security of the state, and to guard against subversion and aggression by imperialism, social-imperialism and their lackeys.

CHAPTER TWO
THE STRUCTURE OF THE STATE

Section I
The National People's Congress
ARTICLE 16
The National People's Congress is the highest organ of state power under the leadership of the Communist Party of China.

The National People's Congress is composed of deputies elected by the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government, and the People's Liberation Army.

When necessary, a certain number of patriotic personages may be specially invited to take part as deputies.

The National People's Congress is elected for a term of five years. Its term of office may be extended under special circumstances.

The National People's Congress holds one session each year. When necessary, the session may be advanced or postponed.

ARTICLE 17
The functions and powers of the National People's Congress are: to amend the Constitution, make laws, appoint and remove the Premier of the State Council and the members of the State Council on the proposal of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, approve the national economic plan, the state budget and the final state accounts, and exercise such other functions and powers as the National People's Congress deems necessary.

ARTICLE 18
The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is the permanent organ of the National People's Congress. Its functions and powers are: to convene the sessions of the National People's Congress, interpret laws, enact decrees, dispatch and recall plenipotentiary representatives abroad, receive foreign diplomatic envoys, ratify and denounce treaties concluded with foreign states, and exercise such other functions and powers as are vested in it by the National People's Congress.

The Standing Committee of the National People's Congress is composed of the Chairman, the ViceChairmen and other members, all of whom are elected and subject to recall by the National People's Congress.

Sect ion II
The State Council
ARTICLE 19
The State Council is the Central People's Government. The State Council is responsible and accountable to the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee.

The State Council is composed of the Premier, the Vice-Premiers, the ministers, and the ministers heading commissions.

ARTICLE 20
The functions and powers of the State Council are: to formulate administrative measures and issue decisions and orders in accordance with the Constitution, laws and decrees; exercise unified leadership over the work of ministries and commissions and local organs of state at various levels throughout the country; draft and implement the national economic plan and the state budget; direct state administrative affairs; and exercise such other functions and powers as are vested in it by the National People's Congress or its Standing Committee.

Section III
The Local People's Congresses and the Local Revolutionary Committees at Various Levels
ARTICLE 21
The local people's congresses at various levels are the local organs of state power.

The people's congresses of provinces and municipalities directly under the Central Government are elected for a term of five years. The people's congresses of prefectures, cities and counties are elected for a term of three years. The people's congresses of rural people's communes and towns are elected for a term of two years.

ARTICLE 22
The local revolutionary committees at various levels are the permanent organs of the local people's congresses and at the same time the local people's governments at various levels.

Local revolutionary committees are composed of a chairman, vice-chairmen and other members, who are elected and subject to recall by the people's congress at the corresponding level. Their election or recall shall be submitted for examination and approval to the organ of state at the next higher level.

Local revolutionary committees are responsible and accountable to the people's congress at the corresponding level and to the organ of state at the next higher level.

ARTICLE 23
The local people's congresses at various levels and the local revolutionary committees elected by them ensure the execution of laws and decrees in their respective areas; lead the socialist revolution and socialist construction in their respective areas; examine and approve local economic plans, budgets and final accounts; maintain revolutionary order; and safeguard the rights of citizens.

Section IV
The Organs of Self-Government of National Autonomous Areas
ARTICLE 24
The autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are all national autonomous areas; their organs of self-government are people's congresses and revolutionary committees.

The organs of self-government of national autonomous areas, apart from exercising the functions and powers of local organs of state as specified in Chapter Two, Section III of the Constitution, may exercise autonomy within the limits of their authority as prescribed by law.

The higher organs of state shall fully safeguard the exercise of autonomy by the organs of self government of national autonomous areas and actively support the minority nationalities in carrying out the socialist revolution and socialist construction.


Section V
The Judicial Organs and the Procuratorial Organs
ARTICLE 25

The Supreme People's Court, local people's courts at various levels and special people's courts exercise judicial authority. The people's courts are responsible and accountable to the people's congresses and their permanent organs at the corresponding levels. The presidents of the people's courts are appointed and subject to removal by the permanent organs of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels.

The functions and powers of procuratorial organs are exercised by the organs of public security at various levels.

The mass line must be applied in procuratorial work and in trying cases. In major counter-revolutionary criminal cases the masses should be mobilized for discussion and criticism.

CHAPTER THREE

THE FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CITIZENS

ARTICLE 26
The fundamental rights and duties of citizens are to support the leadership of the Communist Party of China, support the socialist system and abide by the Constitution and the laws of the People's Republic of China.

It is the lofty duty of every citizen to defend the motherland and resist aggression. It is the honourable obligation of citizens to perform military service according to law.

ARTICLE 27
All citizens who have reached the age of eighteen have the right to vote and stand for election, with the exception of persons deprived of these rights by law.

Citizens have the right to work and the right to education. Working people have the right to rest and the right to material assistance in old age and in case of illness or disability.

Citizens have the right to lodge to organs of state at any level written or oral complaints of transgression of law or neglect of duty on the part of any person working in an organ of state. No one shall attempt to hinder or obstruct the making of such complaints or retaliate.

Women enjoy equal rights with men in all respects.

The state protects marriage, the family, and the mother and child.

The state protects the just rights and interests of overseas Chinese.

ARTICLE 28
Citizens enjoy freedom of speech, correspondence, the press, assembly, association, procession, demonstration and the freedom to strike, and enjoy freedom to believe in religion and freedom not to believe in religion and to propagate atheism.

The citizens' freedom of person and their homes shall be inviolable. No citizen may be arrested except by decision of a people's court or with the sanction of a public security organ..

ARTICLE 29
The People's Republic of China grants the right of residence to any foreign national persecuted for supporting a just cause, for taking part in revolutionary movements or for engaging, in scientific activities.


CHAPTER FOUR
THE NATIONAL FLAG, THE NATIONAL EMBLEM AND THE CAPITAL
ARTICLE 30
The national flag has five stars on a field of red.

The national emblem: Tien An Men in the centre, illuminated by five stars and encircled by ears of grain and a cogwheel.

The capital is Peking.



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    【法规标题】中华人民共和国宪法(1975年)
    【颁布单位】全国人民代表大会
    【发文字号】
    【颁布时间】1975-1-17
    【失效时间】1978-3-5
    【法规来源】
  


    【全文】

中华人民共和国宪法(1975年)
全国人民代表大会


中华人民共和国宪法

(1975年1月17日中华人民共和国第四届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过)


  序 言
  第一章 总纲
  第二章 国家机构
   第一节 全国人民代表大会
   第二节 国务院
   第三节 地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级革命委员会
   第四节 民族自治地方的自治机关
   第五节 审判机关和检察机关
  第三章 公民的基本权利和义务
  第四章 国旗、国徽、首都


序 言


  中华人民共和国的成立,标志着中国人民经过一百多年的英勇奋斗,终于在中国共产党领导下,用人民革命战争推翻了帝国主义、封建主义和官僚资本主义的反动统治,取得了新民主主义革命的伟大胜利,开始了社会主义革命和无产阶级专政的新的历史阶段。
  二十多年来,我国各族人民在中国共产党领导下,乘胜前进,取得了社会主义革命和社会主义建设的伟大胜利,取得了无产阶级文化大革命的伟大胜利,巩固和加强了无产阶级专政。
  社会主义社会是一个相当长的历史阶段。在这个历史阶段中,始终存在着阶级、阶级矛盾和阶级斗争,存在着社会主义同资本主义两条道路的斗争,存在着资本主义复辟的危险性,存在着帝国主义、社会帝国主义进行颠覆和侵略的威胁。这些矛盾,只能靠无产阶级专政下继续革命的理论和实践来解决。
  我们必须坚持中国共产党在整个社会主义历史阶段的基本路线和政策,坚持无产阶级专政下的继续革命,使我们伟大的祖国永远沿着马克思主义、列宁主义、毛泽东思想指引的道路前进。
  我们要巩固工人阶级领导的以工农联盟为基础的各族人民的大团结,发展革命统一战线。要正确区别和处理敌我矛盾和人民内部矛盾。要继续开展阶级斗争、生产斗争和科学实验三大革命运动,独立自主,自力更生,艰苦奋斗,勤俭建国,鼓足干劲,力争上游,多快好省地建设社会主义,备战、备荒、为人民。
  在国际事务中,我们要坚持无产阶级国际主义。中国永远不做超级大国。我们要同社会主义国家、同一切被压迫人民和被压迫民族加强团结,互相支援;在互相尊重主权和领土完整、互不侵犯、互不干涉内政、平等互利、和平共处五项原则的基础上,争取和社会制度不同的国家和平共处,反对帝国主义、社会帝国主义的侵略政策和战争政策,反对超级大国的霸权主义。
  我国人民有充分的信心,在中国共产党领导下,战胜国内外敌人,克服一切困难,把我国建设成为强大的无产阶级专政的社会主义国家,对于人类作出较大的贡献。
  全国各族人民团结起来,争取更大的胜利!


第一章 总纲


  第一条 中华人民共和国是工人阶级领导的以工农联盟为基础的无产阶级专政的社会主义国家。


  第二条 中国共产党是全中国人民的领导核心。工人阶级经过自己的先锋队中国共产党实现对国家的领导。
  马克思主义、列宁主义、毛泽东思想是我国指导思想的理论基础。


  第三条 中华人民共和国的一切权力属于人民。人民行使权力的机关,是以工农兵代表为主体的各级人民代表大会。
  各级人民代表大会和其他国家机关,一律实行民主集中制。
  各级人民代表大会代表,由民主协商选举产生。原选举单位和选民,有权监督和依照法律的规定随时撤换自己选出的代表。


  第四条 中华人民共和国是统一的多民族的国家。实行民族区域自治的地方,都是中华人民共和国不可分离的部分。
  各民族一律平等。反对大民族主义和地方民族主义。
  各民族都有使用自己的语言文字的自由。


  第五条 中华人民共和国的生产资料所有制现阶段主要有两种:社会主义全民所有制和社会主义劳动群众集体所有制。
  国家允许非农业的个体劳动者在城镇街道组织、农村人民公社的生产队统一安排下,从事在法律许可范围内的,不剥削他人的个体劳动。同时,要引导他们逐步走上社会主义集体化的道路。


  第六条 国营经济是国民经济中的领导力量。
  矿藏、水流,国有的森林、荒地和其他资源,都属于全民所有。
  国家可以依照法律规定的条件,对城乡土地和其他生产资料实行征购、征用或者收归国有。


  第七条 农村人民公社是政社合一的组织。
  现阶段农村人民公社的集体所有制经济,一般实行三级所有、队为基础,即以生产队为基本核算单位的公社、生产大队和生产队三级所有。
  在保证人民公社集体经济的发展和占绝对优势的条件下,人民公社社员可以经营少量的自留地和家庭副业,牧区社员可以有少量的自留畜。


  第八条 社会主义的公共财产不可侵犯。国家保证社会主义经济的巩固和发展,禁止任何人利用任何手段,破坏社会主义经济和公共利益。


  第九条 国家实行“不劳动者不得食”、“各尽所能、按劳分配”的社会主义原则。
  国家保护公民的劳动收入、储蓄、房屋和各种生活资料的所有权。


  第十条 国家实行抓革命,促生产,促工作,促战备的方针,以农业为基础,以工业为主导,充分发挥中央和地方两个积极性,促进社会主义经济有计划、按比例地发展,在社会生产不断提高的基础上,逐步改进人民的物质生活和文化生活,巩固国家的独立和安全。


  第十一条 国家机关和工作人员,必须认真学习马克思主义、列宁主义、毛泽东思想,坚持无产阶级政治挂帅,反对官僚主义,密切联系群众,全心全意为人民服务。各级干部都必须参加集体生产劳动。
  国家机关都必须实行精简的原则。它的领导机构,都必须实行老、中、青三结合。


  第十二条 无产阶级必须在上层建筑其中包括各个文化领域对资产阶级实行全面的专政。文化教育、文学艺术、体育卫生、科学研究都必须为无产阶级政治服务,为工农兵服务,与生产劳动相结合。


  第十三条 大鸣、大放、在辩论、大字报,是人民群众创造的社会主义革命的新形式。国家保障人民群众运用这种形式,造成一个又有集中又有民主,又有纪律又有自由,又有统一意志又有个人心情舒畅、生动活泼的政治局面,以利于巩固中国共产党对国家的领导,巩固无产阶级专政。


  第十四条 国家保卫社会主义制度,镇压一切叛国的和反革命的活动,惩办一切卖国贼和反革命分子。
  国家依照法律在一定时期内剥夺地主、富农、反动资本家和其他坏分子的政治权利,同时给以生活出路,使他们在劳动中改造成为守法的自食其力的公民。


  第十五条 中国人民解放军和民兵是中国共产党领导的工农子弟兵,是各族人民的武装力量。
  中国共产党中央委员会主席统率全国武装力量。
  中国人民解放军永远是一支战斗队,同时又是工作队,又是生产队。
  中华人民共和国武装力量的任务,是保卫社会主义革命和社会主义建设的成果,保卫国家的主权、领土完整和安全,防御帝国主义、社会帝国主义及其走狗的颠覆和侵略。


第二章 国家机构


第一节 全国人民代表大会


  第十六条 全国人民代表大会是在中国共产党领导下的最高国家权力机关。
  全国人民代表大会由省、自治区、直辖市和人民解放军选出的代表组成。在必要的时候,可以特邀若干爱国人士参加。
  全国人民代表大会每届任期五年。在特殊情况下,任期可以延长。
  全国人民代表大会会议每年举行一次。在必要的时候,可以提前或者延期。


  第十七条 全国人民代表大会的职权是:修改宪法,制定法律,根据中国共产党中央委员会的提议任免国务院总理和国务院的组成人员,批准国民经济计划、国家的预算和决算,以及全国人民代表大会认为应当由它行使的其他职权。


  第十八条 全国人民代表大会常务委员会是全国人民代表大会的常设机关。它的职权是:召集全国人民代表大会会议,解释法律,制定法令,派遣和召回驻外全权代表,接受外国使节,批准和废除同外国缔结的条约,以及全国人民代表大会授予的其他职权。
  全国人民代表大会常务委员会由委员长,副委员长若干人,委员若干人组成,由全国人民代表大会选举或者罢免。


第二节 国务院


  第十九条 国务院即中央人民政府。国务院对全国人民代表大会和它的常务委员会负责并报告工作。
  国务院由总理,副总理若干人,各部部长,各委员会主任等人员组成。


  第二十条 国务院的职权是:根据宪法、法律和法令,规定行政措施,发布决议和命令;统一领导各部、各委员会和全国地方各级国家机关的工作;制定和执行国民经济计划和国家预算;管理国家行政事务;全国人民代表大会和它的常务委员会授予的其他职权。


第三节 地方各级人民代表大会和地方各级革命委员会


  第二十一条 地方各级人民代表大会都是地方国家权力机关。
  省、直辖市的人民代表大会每届任期五年。地区、市、县的人民代表大会每届任期三年。农村人民公社、镇的人民代表大会每届任期两年。


  第二十二条 地方各级革命委员会是地方各级人民代表大会的常设机关,同时又是地方各级人民政府。
  地方各级革命委员会由主任,副主任若干人,委员若干人组成,由本级人民代表大会选举或者罢免,并报上级国家机关审查批准。
  地方各级革命委员会都对本级人民代表大会和上一级国家机关负责并报告工作。


  第二十三条 地方各级人民代表大会和它产生的地方各级革命委员会在本地区内,保证法律、法令的执行,领导地方的社会主义革命和社会主义建设,审查和批准地方的国民经济计划和预算、决算,维护革命秩序,保障公民权利。


第四节 民族自治地方的自治机关


  第二十四条 自治区、自治州、自治县都是民族自治地方,它的自治机关是人民代表大会和革命委员会。
  民族自治地方的自治机关除行使宪法第二章第三节规定的地方国家机关的职权外,可以依照法律规定的权限行使自治权。
  各上级国家机关应当充分保障各民族自治地方的自治机关行使自治权,积极支持各少数民族进行社会主义革命和社会主义建设。


第五节 审判机关和检察机关


  第二十五条 最高人民法院、地方各级人民法院和专门人民法院行使审判权。各级人民法院对本级人民代表大会和它的常设机关负责并报告工作。各级人民法院院长由本级人民代表大会的常设机关任免。
  检察机关的职权由各级公安机关行使。
  检察和审理案件,都必须实行群众路线。对于重大的反革命刑事案件,要发动群众讨论和批判。


第三章 公民的基本权利和义务


  第二十六条 公民的基本权利和义务是,拥护中国共产党的领导,拥护社会主义制度,服从中华人民共和国宪法和法律。
  保卫祖国,抵抗侵略,是每一个公民的崇高职责。依照法律服兵役是公民的光荣义务。


  第二十七条 年满十八岁的公民,都有选举权和被选举权。依照法律被剥夺选举权和被选举权的人除外。
  公民有劳动的权利,有受教育的权利。劳动者有休息的权利,在年老、疾病或者丧失劳动能力的时候,有获得物质帮助的权利。
  公民对于任何违法失职的国家机关工作人员,有向各级国家机关提出书面控告或者口头控告的权利,任何人不得刁难、阻碍和打击报复。
  妇女在各方面享有同男子平等的权利。
  婚姻、家庭、母亲和儿童受国家的保护。
  国家保护国外华侨的正当权利和利益。


  第二十八条 公民有言论、通信、出版、集会、结社、游行、示威、罢工的自由,有信仰宗教的自由和不信仰宗教、宣传无神论的自由。
  公民的人身自由和住宅不受侵犯。任何公民,非经人民法院决定或者公安机关批准,不受逮捕。


  第二十九条 中华人民共和国对于任何由于拥护正义事业、参加革命运动、进行科学工作而受到迫害的外国人,给以居留的权利。


第四章 国旗、国徽、首都


  第三十条 国旗是五星红旗。
  国徽,中间是五星照耀下的天安门,周围是谷穗和齿轮。
  首都是北京。
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2017-10-29 09:57 | 1 楼
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