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maolive
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The Naxal Challenge: Causes Linkages and Policy Options
By P.V. Ramana


    * Publisher:   Pearson Longman
    * Number Of Pages:   240
    * Publication Date:   2007-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   8131704068
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9788131704066

http://www.plunder.com/The-Naxal-Challenge-Causes-Linkages-and-Policy-Options-8131704068-pdf-download-d0f314e30c.htm

Contents:

The Trajectory of the Movement
    10
  
The Case of Dandakaranya
    25
  
Political Bases and Dimensions of the Naxalite Movement
    62
  
Approaches to the Naxalite Movement
    83
  
Strategies of the Naxalites and the State
    90
  
Impact of External Networking
    101
  
An Overview
    111
  
An Overview
    136
  
Annexures
    163
  
About the Editor and the Contributors
    224
  
Index
    231
  
keywords

activities affected Andhra Pradesh armed struggle Army Bangladesh Base Areas Bastar Bihar cadres CCOMPOSA Central Committee Centre Chhattisgarh Chief Minister communist movement Communist Party continue Coordination CPI Maoist CPI(ML CPN-M Dandakaranya Delhi democratic districts economic elections erstwhile MCCI erstwhile PW ethnic exploitation forest formed Ganapathy guerrilla Home Minister ideological imperialism imperialist Indian Maoists issues Jharkhand Kathmandu L. K. Advani launched law and order leaders leadership Left-wing extremism Liberation LTTE Maoist groups Maoist insurgency Maoist movements Maoist parties masses ment merger military mobilisation Naidu Naxal Naxal-affected Naxalbari Naxalite groups Naxalite movement Naxalite problem Naxalite violence Nepal Nepalese Maoists oppressed organisations Orissa Party of India PLGA police political parties Prachanda programme protracted people's Ramana Reddy region revolution Revolutionary Internationalist Movement Secretary social socio-economic South Asia strategy tactics Tamil Nadu tion tribals unified unity West Bengal
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-11-21 11:32 | 70 楼
maolive
级别: 精灵王


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Red Sun: Travels in Naxalite Country
By Sudeep Chakravarti


    * Publisher:   Penguin Global
    * Number Of Pages:   320
    * Publication Date:   2008-11-26
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0670081337
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780670081332

http://www.plunder.com/Red-Sun-Travels-in-Naxalite-Country-0670081337-pdf-download-fd287f4f83.htm

The Maoists Are Patriots, By Their Own Admission . . . India S Maoists Do Not Want A Separate Country. They Already Have One. It S Just Not The Way They Would Like It Yet.

In 1967, Naxalbari, A Village In West Bengal, Became The Centre Of A Mao-Inspired Militant Peasant Uprising Guided By Firebrand Intellectuals. Today, Naxalism Is No Longer The Che Guevara-Style Revolution That It Was. Spread Across 15 Of India S 28 States, It Is One Of The World S Biggest, Most Sophisticated Extreme-Left Movements, And Feeds Off The Misery And Anger Of The Dispossessed. Since The Late 1990S, Hardly A Week Has Passed Without People Dying In Strikes And Counter-Strikes By The Maoists Interchangeably Known As The Naxalites And Police And Paramilitary Forces.
In This Brilliant And Disturbing Examination Of The Other India , Sudeep Chakravarti Combines Political History, Extensive Interviews And Individual Case Histories As He Travels To The Heart Of Maoist Zones In The Country: Chhattisgarh (Home To The Controversial State-Sponsored Salwa Judum Programme To Contain Naxalism), Jharkhand, West Bengal, Karnataka And Andhra Pradesh (Where A Serving Chief Minister Was Nearly Killed In A Landmine Explosion Triggered By The Naxalites). He Meets Maoist Leaders And Sympathizers, Policemen, Bureaucrats, Politicians, Security Analysts, Development Workers, Farmers And Tribals People, Big And Small, Who Comprise The Actors And The Audience In This War Being Fought In Jungles And Impoverished Villages Across India. What Emerges Is A Sobering Picture Of A Deeply Divided Society, And The Dangers That Lie Ahead For India.
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-11-21 12:05 | 71 楼
maolive
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Studies on Marxist in postwar Japan: Main issues in political economy and the materialist outlook of history
By Kanichi Kuroda


    * Publisher:   Akane
    * Number Of Pages:   269
    * Publication Date:   2002
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   4899890656
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9784899890652

keywords:

abstract human labour Afghanistan al-Qaeda alienated American imperialism analysis of contemporary asymmetrical warfare Boris Yeltsin bourgeois cadherins capitalist capitalist economy century clarified clash of civilizations class struggle cognition Cold War commodity economy commodity market conception of history concrete analysis Constitution of Japan contemporary capitalism contemporary world countries criticism Das Kapital determined dialectical materialism dialectics of society duction Engels epistemology essence-theory essentialistic ethnic ethno-nationalism existence fin de siecle Friedrich Engels Furihata German Ideology grasp Gyorgy Lukacs Hegel Historical Materialism historical process However ideology imperialism imperialist intensive quantity Islamic Japan Japanese Jiang Zemin jihad Karl Marx Kobushi Shobo Kuroda labour labour-power law of value logic market economy Marx Marx's Marxism Marxism-Leninism material productive powers materialist materialist conception Matsushiro methodology Mikhail Gorbachev Miki Kiyoshi mode of production monopoly monopoly capitalism movement Muslims Nagorno-Karabakh nationalism NATO natural economy Nature neo-Nazism Neo-Stalinism Nishida Kitaro nomic Northern Alliance objective laws objectivism ontology Organizing Praxis Ouchi Pakistan Pashtuns perestroika Persian Gulf War philosophy philosophy of history policies political corruption Political Economy politico-economic post-capitalism post-Marxism Praxiology praxis pre-capitalist societies primitive communism principle-theory process of production production process proletarian proxy war rampancy reality-theory relations of production relationship revolution Revolutionary Marxism revolutionizing Russia Second World War sentence social material process social production socialist Soviet bloc Soviet Union stadial stage stage-theory Stalinism Stalinist standpoint structure sublated substance superstructure Taliban Tanabe Hajime tence thingivated tion Togaku Tony Cliff topos toposical tri-stadial Tsushima unfolding University of Tokyo Uno school Uno's theory use-value USSR vanguard party view of history viewpoint Watsuji Tetsuro workers Yugoslavia

http://www.plunder.com/Studies-on-Marxist-in-postwar-Japan-Main-issues-in-political-economy-and-the-materialist-outlook-of-history-4899890656-pdf-download-463cc6365e.htm

Red Sun: Travels in Naxalite Country
By Sudeep Chakravarti


    * Publisher:   Penguin Global
    * Number Of Pages:   320
    * Publication Date:   2008-11-26
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0670081337
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780670081332

http://www.plunder.com/Red-Sun-Travels-in-Naxalite-Country-0670081337-pdf-download-fd287f4f83.htm

The Maoists Are Patriots, By Their Own Admission . . . India S Maoists Do Not Want A Separate Country. They Already Have One. It S Just Not The Way They Would Like It Yet.

In 1967, Naxalbari, A Village In West Bengal, Became The Centre Of A Mao-Inspired Militant Peasant Uprising Guided By Firebrand Intellectuals. Today, Naxalism Is No Longer The Che Guevara-Style Revolution That It Was. Spread Across 15 Of India S 28 States, It Is One Of The World S Biggest, Most Sophisticated Extreme-Left Movements, And Feeds Off The Misery And Anger Of The Dispossessed. Since The Late 1990S, Hardly A Week Has Passed Without People Dying In Strikes And Counter-Strikes By The Maoists Interchangeably Known As The Naxalites And Police And Paramilitary Forces.
In This Brilliant And Disturbing Examination Of The Other India , Sudeep Chakravarti Combines Political History, Extensive Interviews And Individual Case Histories As He Travels To The Heart Of Maoist Zones In The Country: Chhattisgarh (Home To The Controversial State-Sponsored Salwa Judum Programme To Contain Naxalism), Jharkhand, West Bengal, Karnataka And Andhra Pradesh (Where A Serving Chief Minister Was Nearly Killed In A Landmine Explosion Triggered By The Naxalites). He Meets Maoist Leaders And Sympathizers, Policemen, Bureaucrats, Politicians, Security Analysts, Development Workers, Farmers And Tribals People, Big And Small, Who Comprise The Actors And The Audience In This War Being Fought In Jungles And Impoverished Villages Across India. What Emerges Is A Sobering Picture Of A Deeply Divided Society, And The Dangers That Lie Ahead For India.

Rethinking Marxism: struggles in Marxist theory : essays for Harry Magdoff & Paul Sweezy

By Steven Resnick, Richard Wolff


    * Publisher:   Autonomedia
    * Number Of Pages:   428
    * Publication Date:   1985-05-05
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0936756128
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780936756127

http://www.plunder.com/rethinking-marxism-pdf-download-d048f7a7ad.htm

keywords:

abstract accumulation analysis Atlanticist Baran bourgeois bourgeoisie bureaucracy capital accumulation capitalist capitalist production Charles Bettelheim Christian Democrats circulation class process class struggle commodity exchange commodity production Communist Manifesto competition concept constant capital contradiction crises Crisis of Capitalism crisis theory de-skilling division of labor domination economic economic determinism economists Engels epistemological Ernest Mandel essentialist exchange value existence expansion exploitation factors of production Fanon feminism forces Frantz Fanon Frederick Engels fundamental class Fundamentalists G.W.F. Hegel gross profit Harry Braverman Harry Cleaver Harry Magdoff historical historical materialism historical materialist ibid income individual individual capitals industrial investment Italy itself Jurgen Habermas Karl Marx Keynesian labor power landed nobility law of value Lenin Leo Huberman lira Louis Althusser Malagasy Marx Marx's Marxian Marxian economics Marxism today Marxist theory Maurice Dobb means of production merchant capital mode of production Monopoly Capital Monthly Review Moscow movement neo-Marxism neoclassical non-class oedipus complex organic composition particular Paul Baran Paul Sweezy planned economy political Political Economy Poverty of Philosophy problem productive forces profit rates proletariat radical rate of exploitation rate of profit relations relations of production reproduction revolution revolutionary Rosa Luxemburg Samir Amin Samuel Bowles Say's Law sector simple commodity simple commodity production social social capital socialist society Soviet Soviet Union specific sphere structure subsumed class superego surplus value Sweezy Sweezy's tendency theoretical Third World thus tradition transformation Transformation Problem Trotsky underconsumption unequal exchange use-value value theory variable capital wage wage-labor Western Marxism workers York


La Commune en images, 1871
Maspero, 1982
ISBN 0270712925, 9780270712926
83 pages

images from the Paris Commune 1871




http://www.plunder.com/La-Commune-en-images-pdf-download-2f36ffc872.htm

The Paris Commune of 1871

By Norman Barth

Paris Kiosque - May 2001 - Volume 8, Number 5
Copyright (c) May 2001 Norman Barth - used with permission The story of the Paris Commune is an important, but complicated one. In this short piece, I hope to communicate the grand lines of what happened, using sources not too far removed from those events. In the 100 plus years since the Commune, communism has both risen to greater heights, and come crashing down. The Paris Commune of 1871 is a major part of understanding what happened. - Norman Barth

Following a miserable defeat against the Prussians late in 1870, Paris refused to accept the surrender negotiated by the head of the national government Adolphe Thiers early the following year. After all, it was the national government that had declared war on Germany in July 1870. Full of confidence that the Prussians would lose, France marched off to war only to find herself quickly on the defensive after initial victories. All of this fanned the flames of discontent with the national government, and Napoléon III, which had already been strong before the war. The French army defeated, the Prussians now on the outskirts of Paris laid siege to the city. The ineffectual national government was in disaray. After months of impotent attempts to break out, the French government signed an armistice on 28 February 1871.

For the citizens of Paris it was all too much. On 18 March 1871, the Commune of Paris was declared. Until 28 May 1871, the Commune reigned in Paris - a worker's insurrection whose red banners hinted at worker's revolutions to come in the early 20th century some 46 years later.

Baedeker's Paris guide 13th edition, published 27 years later, in 1898, later summarized these events as follows:

    The siege of Paris in 1870-71 ranks among the most remarkable occurrences in the annals of modern warefare. After the decisive battle of Sedan [near the border with Belgium where Napoléon III capitulated to the Prussians] the victorious German troops pushed forward to Paris without delay, while the Government of the National Defence made the most strenuous exertions to place the capital in a state of defence. Cattle and grain were sent into the city in immense quantities, the roads by which the prussians would probably march were rendered impassable, and the arming of the forst and the Enceinte [the ramparts surrounding Paris] was proceeded with as rapidly as possible. The troops in Paris at the beginning of the siege numbered about 200,000 men, but of these only 60,000 or 70,000 were regular soldiers. The besieging force was composed of six army-corps under the Crown Prince of Prussia and the army of the Meuse under the Crown Prince of Saxony, the full strength of which consisted of 202,000 infantry, 34,000 cavalry, and 900 guns.

    By 15 September 1870, the advanced guard of the Crown Prince's army was within 10 miles of Paris and on the 17th a pontoon bridge was thrown across the Seine at Villeneuve-St-George. After a short but severe contest at Sceaux Versailles was reached, and here a few days later, the German Headquarters were established. Meanwhile the army of the Meuse had occupied the ground on the right banks of the Seine and Marne, thus completing the investiture. The aim of the besiegers was the reduction of the city by famine, while the only course of defence practicable to the besieged was to pierce the investing lines and establish communication with the relief army on the Loire [where the French national government had fled in advance of the German armies].

    [Numerous sorties attempting to break out of Paris were led between September and the end of December - each ultimately repulsed]

    In the meantime the besiegers had decided on a general bombardment of the city ... and from 5 January 1871 onward an active cannonade was directed against the city from almost every point of its environment. The distress of the besieged now reached its climax. The hopelessness of the situation was recognized by all military authorities, but a final sortie was undertaken in deference to public opinion. The Naional Guards, who had hitherto been spared active service, took part in this sally, which was directed against Versailles, under cover of the guns of Mont Valérien. The French were once more driven back, with immense loss, on 19 January.

    Resistence was now at an end. On 23 January, Jules Favre went to Versailles to negotiate an armistice, which was arranged on the 28th of January. The following day the Germans were put in possession of the forts. The preliminaries of peace were concluded on 24 February and signed on 28 February. Part of the German army made a triumphal entry into Paris on 1 March, but was withdrawn in two days on the prompt ratification of the treaty of peace by the National Assembly at Bordeaux.

    The Communard insurrection entailed a second siege of Paris (April - May), more disastrous than the first, followed by a fierce and sanguinary week of street-fighting. The Tuileries Palace, Hôtel de Ville were burned, the Vendôme Column overthrown and many other public and private edifices more or less completely burned or ruined.
    Paris and Environs; Handbook for Travellers by Karl Baedeker 13th ed. published 1898


The Tuileries Palace can be seen in this map of 1870. It encloses the western side of the present day Louvre, connecting the Denon and Richelieu wings. The Palace was burned in the closing days of the Commune.

Having agreed to, and signed the peace accords with Germany, the National Assembly now moved from Bordeaux to Versailles. The Prussians contined to occupy northern France, and to surround Paris. Within Paris however, the Communards remained defient. What was left of the National Guard within the city, and their cannons in particular, became part of the Commune. The National Government at Versailles now attempted to restore order within Paris. The first taste of how hard this would be came early on the morning of 18 March when General Lecomte rode to Montmartre to take control of cannon that had been placed there. As a crowd gathered, the mayor of Montmartre, Georges Clemenceau, berated Lecomte for daring to come for the cannon. The geering of the crowd rose the temperature. Finally Lecomte gave orders to load and fix bayonets. There was no response from his troops. Three times he repeated the order. By now his soldiers were dropping their arms, tearing off their uniforms, and fraternizing with the crowd. The situation was degenerating into chaos, Lecomte and his officers were taken by the rabble and put in an improvised prison in a nearby dancehall [which one might suppose was in/near Place Pigalle].


The burned out hulk of the Tuileries Palace as it was after the Commune. (Image used with permission, Northwestern University Library; Special Collections, The Siege and Commune of Paris, 1870-1871).

Yet as things would have it the Commune could not resist the military power of the better organized and provisioned soldiers of the National Assembly in Versailles. The Prussians stood aside as French soldiers marched on French defenders of the Commune. The 600 barricades thrown up throughout the city could not hold them off, and one by one, they fell. Often their defenders were lined up, and summarily shot.

The Mur des Fédérés, Père-Lachaise Cemetary where the last resisting communards were shot on 28 May 1871. The plaque says: `Aux Morts De La Commune.' (Image 2000)

The night of 27-28 May, their last stand took place among the tombs of Père-Lachaise Cemetary. Archibald Forbes, an English journalist, recorded the aftermath at the Mur des Fédérés (Wall of the Federalists) in the south eastern corner of the cemetary.

    When I returned the Communists were at their last gasp in the Château d'Eau, the Buttes de Chaumont, and Père-Lachaise. On the afternoon of the 28th, after just one week of fighting, Marshal MacMahon announced, `I am absolute master of Paris'. On the following morning I visited Père-Lachaise, where the very last shots had been fired. Bivouac fires had been fed with the souvenirs of pious sorrow, and the trappings of woe had been torn down to be used as bedclothes. But there had been no great amount of fighting in the cemetery itself. An infallible token of close and heavy firing are the dents of many bullets, and of those there were comparatively few in Père-Lachaise. Shells, however, had fallen freely, and the results were occasionally very ghastly. But the ghastliest sight in Père-Lachaise was in the south-eastern corner, where, close to the boundary wall, there had been a natural hollow. The hollow was now filled up by dead. One could measure the dead by the rod. There they lay, tier above tier, each successive tier powdered over with a coating of chloride of lime - two hundred of them patent to the eye, besides those underneath hidden by the earth covering layer after layer. Among the dead were many women. There, thrown up in the sunlight, was a well-rounded arm with a ring on one of the fingers; there, again, was a bust shapely in death. And yonder faces which to look upon made one sudder - faces distorted out of humanity with ferocity and agony combined. The ghastly effect of the dusty white powder on the dulled eyes, the gnashed teeth, and the jagged beards cannot be described. How died these men and women? Were they carted hither and laid out in this dead-hole of Père-Lachaise? Not so: the hole had been replenished from close by. Just yonder was where they were posted up against that section of pock-pitted wall - there was no difficulty in ready the open book - and were shot to death as they stood or crouched.
    The Suppression of the Paris Commune; 23 - 24 May 1871 The Daily News, 26 May 1871

The week of 21 - 28 May became known as La semaine sanglante (The blood-soaked week). Versailles admitted to 17,000 fatalities among the defenders of Paris. Other estimates are as high as 30,000. Losses to the Versailles side are put at about 1000, with 6,500 wounded. All of this within a week, while during the French Revolution, and Terror, 19,000 died in nearly a year an a half. Roughly 50,000 were arrested after the suppression of the Commune. Some of these escaped, many were imprisoned, the worst offenders - some 4,500 - being sent to New Caledonia in the South Pacific.

What is most important about the Paris Commune of 1871? Peter Kropotkin wrote in 1895:

    Why is the idea represented by the Commune of Paris so attractive to the workers of every land, of every nationality? The answer is easy. The revolution of 1871 was above all a popular one. It was made by the people themselves, it sprang spontaneously from the midst of the mass, and it was among the great masses of the people that it found its defenders, its heroes, its martyrs. It is just because it was so thoroughly ``low'' that the middle class can never forgive it. And at the same time its moving spirit was the idea of a social revolution; vague certainly, perhaps unconscious, but still the effort to obtain at last, after the struggle of many centuries, true freedom, true equality for all men. It was the revolution of the lowest of the people marching forward to conquer their rights.
    Peter Kropotkin, "The Commune of Paris: II How the Commune Failed to realize its true aim and yet set that aim before the world", Freedom Pamphlets, no. 2 London, W. Reeves, 1895.

Norman Barth is the Editor of the Paris Kiosque, and webmaster/creator of Les Pages de Paris. He can be contacted at nbarth@paris.org



Outline political history of the Americas
By William Z Foster

http://www.plunder.com/Outline-Political-History-of-the-Americas-by-William-Z-Foster-pdf-download-d54d2107cc.htm

    * Publisher:   International Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   668
    * Publication Date:   1951
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0006ASQ28
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:

anarcho-syndicalism Argentina Axis powers Aztecs Bolivia bourgeoisie Brazil Buenos Aires Canada Canadian capitalist caudilloism Central America chattel slavery Chile Colombia Communist International Communist Party conquistadores Costa Rica craft unions crisis of capitalism Cuba democratic Dominican Republic Ecuador encomienda England fascist France Freyre Germany Gran Chaco Guatemala Haiti Haitian Revolution Herbert Aptheker Hispanic America Honduras imperialist Incas International Workingmen's Association Karl Marx Knights of Labor labor aristocracy labor movement latifundia Latin America Lenin Marshall Plan Mestizos Mexican Revolution Mexico City monopoly capital Monroe Doctrine Montevideo Mulattoes National Labor Union Negro Neighbor policy Nicaragua Pan-American Union Panama Paraguay peonage people's front Peru Portugal Portuguese Puerto Rico Quebec reactionary River Plate Russian Revolution Santo Domingo semicolonial slaves Social-Democrats Socialist Party South America Soviet Union Spain Spanish square miles syndicalist thirteen colonies Tim Buck trade unions Truman Doctrine United Uruguay USSR Venezuela wage slavery West Indies western hemisphere WFTU Yankee imperialism

The thought of Mao Tse-Tung
By Anna Louise Strong


    * Publisher:   Amerasia
    * Number Of Pages:  14
    * Publication Date:   1947
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0007EVM2Y
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  
http://www.plunder.com/the-thought-of-mao-tse-tung-by-anna-louise-strong-pdf-download-2143f8e4ac.htm
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-11-21 12:54 | 72 楼
maolive
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no pass scanned pdf 45m

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http://www.plunder.com/The-Rosenberg-Letters-A-Complete-Edition-of-the-Prison-Correspondence-of-Julius-and-Ethel-Rosenberg-0824059484-pdf-download-2a1448f029.htm

The Rosenberg Letters: A Complete Edition of the Prison Correspondence of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg (Garland Reference Library of the Humanities)
By M. Meeropol



Publisher:   Routledge
Number Of Pages:   792
Publication Date:   1994-03-01
ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0824059484
ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780824059484


Product Description:

Makes available for the first time the complete and unedited text of all the surviving letters written by Julius and Ethel Rosenberg during their three years in the Sing Sing death house over 500 letters written to one another, their two young sons, and their attorney. The letters have been collect


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http://www.plunder.com/one-of-us-the-story-of-john-reed-pdf-download-584fdf48d5.htm

One Of Us: The Story Of John Reed
By Granville Hicks



Publisher:   Kessinger Publishing, LLC
Number Of Pages:   64
Publication Date:   2007-03-01
ISBN-10 / ASIN:   1432580035
ISBN-13 / EAN:   9781432580032


http://ifile.it/63yr5de
http://www.plunder.com/marx-in-london-pdf-download-9ef5523bb0.htm




Marx in London
By Asa Briggs, John Callow




Publisher:   Lawrence And Wishart Ltd
Number Of Pages:   128
Publication Date:   2008-04-01
ISBN-10 / ASIN:   1905007604
ISBN-13 / EAN:   9781905007608


Product Description:

Marx lived in London as a political exile from 1849 until his death in 1883. This book links the story of Marx's life in London to the places he lived and worked, and is aimed at visitors who are interested in seeing the places with which he was particularly associated. It is fully illustrated with photographs, maps and illustrations, and includes transport details to places of interest. Marx spent most of the first years in London in Soho, before moving to Kentish Town in 1856. Other places of significance to his life include the British Museum Reading Room, where he worked on Capital, Covent Garden, where the meetings of the First International took place, and Hampstead Heath, where Marx and his friends spent family Sundays.





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Marx comes to India: Earliest Indian biographies of Karl Marx by Lala Hardayal and Swadeshabhimani Ramakrishna Pillai, with critical introductions
By P. C Joshi



Publisher:   Manohar Book Service
Number Of Pages:   133
Publication Date:   1975
ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0000E8238
ISBN-13 / EAN:  

http://ifile.it/suhz8kq
http://www.plunder.com/Marx-and-Engels-Collected-Works-1874-83-Karl-Marx-Frederick-Engels-Collected-Works-V-24-0717805247-pdf-download-0f2f0abcb3.htm


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http://www.plunder.com/Marx-and-Engels-on-the-paris-commune-pdf-download-32546e2cac.htm

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: Writings on the Paris Commune.
By



Publisher:   progress publisher moscow
Number Of Pages:   357
Publication Date:   1971-01-01
ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B001ANMPOA
ISBN-13 / EAN:  

  
On the study inside the Communist party ...
作者 Zedong Mao
出版商 n.p.
页数 18 页
http://ifile.it/3fg8tjz
http://www.plunder.com/on-study-inside-the-communist-party-mao-zedong-pdf-download-a94b8b3c80.htm
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-11-24 08:36 | 73 楼
maolive
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图片:
 Naxalism in Bihar
作者 Dr. Ajay Kumar Singh
出版商 Vishal Publications, 2007
ISBN 8189327364, 9788189327361
页数 126 页
http://plunder.com/c71cccc7e3
Naxalite
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Naxalite or Naxalvadis (name from the village of Naxalbari in the Indian state of West Bengal where the movement originated), are a group of far-left radical communists, supportive of Maoistpolitical sentiment and ideology. Their origin can be traced to thesplit in 1967 of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), leading toformation of Communist Party of India (Marxist- Leninist). They havebeen responsible, since 1947, of violent acts on the Indian state andits machinary. Initially the movement had its centre in West Bengal. In recent years, they have spread into less developed areas of rural central and eastern India, such as Chhattisgarh and Andhra Pradesh through the activities of underground groups like the Communist Party of India (Maoist).[1] They lead the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. As of now Naxalites are active across approximately 220 districts in twenty states of India[2] accounting for about 40 percent of India's geographical area,[3] They are especially concentrated in an area known as the "Red corridor", where they control 92,000 square kilometers.[3] According to India's intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing,20,000 armed cadre Naxalites were operating apart from 50,000 regularcadres working in their various mass organizations and millions ofsympathisers,[4] and their growing influence prompted Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh to declare them as the most serious internal threat to India's national security.[5] The Naxalites are opposed by virtually all mainstream Indian political groups.[6].In February 2009, Central government announced its plans forsimultaneous, co-ordinated counter-operations in all Left-wingextremism-hit states—Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra,Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal, to plug all possibleescape routes of Naxalites.[7]
Contents
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History
The term Naxalites comes from Naxalbari, a small village in West Bengal, where a extremist section of Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI(M)) led by Charu Majumdar and Kanu Sanyalled a violent uprising in 1967, trying to develop a "revolutionaryopposition" in opposition to the CPI(M) leadership. The insurrectionstarted on May 25, 1967 in Naxalbari village when a farmer was attackedby local goons over a land dispute. Maoists in the guise of local farmers retaliated by attacking the local landlords and escalated the violence.[6] Majumdar greatly admired Mao Zedong of Chinaand advocated that Indian peasants and lower classes must follow in hisfootsteps and overthrow the government and upper classes whom he heldresponsible for their plight. He strengthened the Naxalite movementthrough his writings, the most famous being the 'Historic Eight Documents' which formed the basis of Naxalite ideology.[8] In 1967 'Naxalites' organized the All India Coordination Committee of Communist Revolutionaries(AICCCR), and later broke away from CPI(M). Violent 'uprisings' wereorganized in several parts of the country. In 1969 AICCCR gave birth toCommunist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist).
Practically all Naxalite groups trace their origin to the CPI(ML). A separate tendency from the beginning was the Maoist Communist Centre, which evolved out of the Dakshin Desh-group. MCC later fused with People's War Group to form Communist Party of India (Maoist). A third tendency is that of the Andhra revolutionary communists, which was mainly presented by UCCRI(ML), following the mass line legacy of T. Nagi Reddy. That tendency broke with AICCCR at an early stage.
During the 1970s the movement was fragmented into several disputingfactions. By 1980 it was estimated that around 30 Naxalite groups wereactive, with a combined membership of 30 000.[9]A 2004 home ministry estimate puts numbers at that time as "9,300hardcore underground cadre… [holding] around 6,500 regular weaponsbeside a large number of unlicensed country-made arms".[10]According to Judith Vidal-Hall (2006), "More recent figures put thestrength of the movement at 15,000, and claim the guerrillas control anestimated one fifth of India's forests, as well as being active in 160of the country's 604 administrative districts."[11] India's Research and Analysis Wing, believed in 2006 that 20,000 Naxals are currently involved in the growing insurgency[4]
Today some groups have become legal organisations participating in parliamentary elections, such as Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Liberation. Others, such as Communist Party of India (Maoist) and Communist Party of India (Marxist-Leninist) Janashakti, are engaged in armed guerrilla struggles
Violence in Bengal
The Naxal movement was immensely popular with not only the radical sections of the students movement in Calcutta,but the whole student body of Bengal undeniably were sympathetic aboutthem since the mainstream Communist ideology had proved itself to behypocritical and farcical in practice, as they stand to this day.[12]The state machinery of India systematically annihilated this studentsupport baseline from the whole movement as international human rightswatch dog bodies picked up frantic calls of disappearances of studentsand intellectuals. Between 1969 and 1979 an estimated 5000 students andintellectuals disappeared or were killed under mysterious conditions.The West Bengal Left Front maintains that these students andintellectuals left their education to join violent activities of theNaxalites. Charu Majumdar progressively changed the tactics of CPI(ML),and declared that revolutionary warfare was to take place not only inthe rural areas but everywhere and spontaneously. Thus Majumdar's'annihilation line', a dictum that Naxalites should assassinateindividual "class enemies" as a part of the insurrection was exploitedby state media and the Bengal Left Front to infuse a sense of demonicidentity into Naxals and over thirty years portrayed them as a socialevil. Where as the statistical data refers to the theory being onlypracticed against such elements in civil society who were deemed as"class enemies". The police, landlords and corrupt politicians cuttingacross mainstream party lines.
Throughout Calcutta, schools were shut down. The police claims that students took over Jadavpur University and used the machine shop facilities to make pipe guns to attack the police and that their headquarters became Presidency College, Kolkata.The movement soon found ardent supporters amongst most of the educatedclass, and Delhi's prestigious St. Stephen's College, alma mater ofmany contemporary Indian leaders and thinkers, became a hotbed ofNaxalite activities.
The strategy of individual terrorism soon proved counterproductive. Eventually, the Chief Minister, Siddhartha Shankar Ray,began to institute counter-measures against the Naxalites. The WestBengal police and the state sponsored CPI(Marxist) cadres fought backto stop the advancement of Naxalites. The student part of the movementwas cruelly repressed by numerous disappearing s, staged encounters,and a doldrum of state sponsored media allegations tarnishing the imageof the Naxalite movement and this massive and relentless public brainwashing campaign was partly successful in hijacking public opinionsympathetic of the Naxalite ideology to that of misinformed 'fear'. Thehuman rights violations on the West Bengal police went unabated fordecades after this to attain the demonic proportions of the eightiesand nineties where they have been appropriately termed as the'uniformed mafia' . Buddhadev Bhattacharya tactically led from thefront line as the police and home minister of West Bengal during thesame period to turn the evil nexus of CPIM and the West Bengal Policeinto a feared repressive regime which was the most effectivecounteractive agent against the onslaught of Naxalites.
Moreover, the movement was torn about by disputes infused by state intelligence. In 1971 CPI(ML) was split in two, as Satyanarayan Singh parted ways with Majumdar's leadership. In 1972 Majumdar was arrested by the police and subsequently he died in Alipore Jailunder unexplainable circumstances. After his death the Stateunsuccessfully tried fragmenting this movement for the next threedecades.
Lalgarh,West Bengal has emerged as a region close to coming completely undercontrol of the Naxalites after the group threw out the local police andattacked members of the ruling communist government in late May 2009.The state government initiated a huge operation with centralparamilitary forces and state armed police to retake Lalgarh in earlyJune. Maoist leader Kishenji claimed in an interview that the massNaxalite movement in Lalgarh in 2009 aimed at creating a 'liberatedzone' against "oppression of the establishment Left and its police" hasgiven them a major base in West Bengal for the first time since theNaxalite uprising went underground in the mid-1970s and that "We willhave an armed movement going in Calcutta by 2011". [13]
Cultural references
[table=17em][tr][td]Organizations listed as terrorist groups by India[/td][/tr][tr][td]Northeastern India[/td][/tr][tr][td]National Socialist Council of Nagaland-Isak-Muivah (NSCN-IM)
Naga National Council-Federal (NNCF)
National Council of Nagaland-Khaplang
United Liberation Front of Asom
People's Liberation Army
Kanglei Yawol Kanna Lup (KYKL)
Zomi Revolutionary Front[/td][/tr][tr][td]Kashmir[/td][/tr][tr][td]Al-Badr
Al-Badr Mujahideen
Al Barq (ABQ)
Al Fateh Force (AFF)
Al Jihad Force (AJF)/Al Jihad
Al Mujahid Force (AMF)
Al Umar Mujahideen (AUR/Al Umar)
Awami Action Committee (AAC)
Dukhtaran-e-Millat (DEM)
Harakat-ul-Ansar
Harakat-ul-Jihad-I-Islami
Harakat-ul-Mujahideen
Hizb-ul-Mujahideen (HUM)
Ikhwan-ul-Musalmeen (IUM)
Jaish-e-Mohammed (JEM)
Lashkar-e-Mohammadi
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen (JUM)
Jammat-ul-Mujahideen Almi (JUMA)
Jammu and Kashmir Democratic Freedom Party (JKDFP)
Jammu and Kashmir Islamic Front (JKIF)
Jammu and Kashmir Jamaat-e-Islami (JKJEI)
Lashkar-e-Toiba (LET)
Jaish-e-Mohammed
Kul Jammat Hurriyat Conference (KJHC)
Mahaz-e-Azadi (MEA)
Muslim Janbaaz Force (MJF/Jaanbaz Force)
Muslim Mujahideen (MM)
Hizbul Mujahideen
Harkat-ul-Mujahideen
Farzandan-e-Milat
United Jihad Council
Al-Qaeda
Students Islamic Movement of India Tehreek-e-Jihad (TEJ)
Pasban-e-Islami (PEI/Hizbul Momineen HMM)
Shora-e-Jihad (SEJ)
Tehreek-ul-Mujahideen (TUM)
[/td][/tr][tr][td]North India[/td][/tr][tr][td]Babbar Khalsa
Bhindranwala Tigers Force of Khalistan
Communist Party of India (Maoist)
Dashmesh Regiment
International Sikh Youth Federation (ISYF)
Kamagata Maru Dal of Khalistan
Khalistan Armed Force
Khalistan Liberation Force
Khalistan Commando Force
Khalistan Liberation Army
Khalistan Liberation Front
Khalistan Liberation Organisation
Khalistan National Army
Khalistan Guerilla Force
Khalistan Security Force
Khalistan Zindabad Force
Shaheed Khalsa Force[/td][/tr][tr][td]Central India[/td][/tr][tr][td]People's war group
Balbir militias
Naxals
Ranvir Sena[/td][/tr][tr][td] v • d • e [/td][/tr][/table]The British musical group Asian Dub Foundation have a song called Naxalite. This song was part of the soundtrack to the 1999 film Brokedown Palace. In 2005 a movie called Hazaaron Khwaishein Aisi directed by Sudhir Mishra was released with the backdrop of Naxalite movement. In August 2008, Kabeer Kaushik's Chamku starring Bobby Deol and Priyanka Chopra explored the story of a boy who is brain-washed to take arms against the state.
There is a reference to a character, in the novel, The God of Small Things by Arundhati Roy, joining with the Naxalites.
The 1998 film Haazar chaurasi ki Maa (based on the novel, "Hazar Churashir Maa" by Mahasweta Devi) (Mother of 1084-the number assigned to her son) starring Jaya Bachchangives a very sympathetic portrayal of a Naxalbari militant killed bythe state.The 2009 Malayalam movie 'Thalappavu' portrays the story ofNaxal Varghese, who was shot dead by the police during the 70s.
The Kannada movie Veerappa Nayaka directed by S.Narayan portrays Vishnuvardhan - a Gandhian with his son becoming a Naxalite. The 2007 Kannada movie Maathaad Maathaadu Mallige directed by Nagathihalli Chandrashekhar again portrays Vishnuvardhan as a Gandhian, confronting a Naxalite Sudeep showing that the ways adopted by Naxals will only lead to violence and will not achieve its objective.
Eka Nakshalwadya Cha Janma, (Marathi: The birth of a Naxal), a novel written by Vilas Balkrishna Manohar, a volunteer with the Lok Biradari Prakalp, is a fictional account of a Madia Gond Juru's unwilling journey of life his metamorphosis from an exploited nameless tribal to a Naxal.[14]
Deaths related to violence
Violence has peaked in India from Maoist or Naxalite separatistviolence being more dangerous to India's national security, as declaredby Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.
From the Ministry of Home Affairs it has been stated that:
  • 1996: 156 deaths [15]
  • 1997: 428 deaths[15]
  • 1998: 270 deaths[15]
  • 1999: 363 deaths[15]
  • 2000: 50 deaths[15]
  • 2001: 100+ deaths[15]
  • 2002: 140 deaths[15]
  • 2003: 451 deaths[15]
  • 2004: 500+ deaths[15]
  • 2005: 892 deaths
  • 2006: 749 deaths
  • 2007: (as of September 30, 2007) 384 deaths[16]
(related to Naxalite insurgency)[17]
  • 2008: 938 casualties (including 38 Maoists).[18]
[19]
  • 2009: Naxalites separatists struck at the first phase of electionson 16 April, 2009 in Bihar, Chattisgarh and Jharkhand killing 18civilians and security forces. Later, on 23 April, 2009, they alsostruck in the second phase of polling in Jamshedpur and surroundingareas in Jharkhand injuring several member of the polling party. May2009: 16 police die in suspected Maoist attack [20]
The BBC maintains that upwards of 6,000 people have died in the Naxal uprising.[5]
See also
References
    ^ Ramakrishnan, Venkitesh (2005-09-21). "The Naxalite Challenge". Frontline Magazine (The Hindu). http://www.flonnet.com/fl2221/stories/20051021006700400.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-15. ^ Handoo, Ashook. "Naxal Problem needs a holistic approach". Press Information Bureau. http://www.pib.nic.in/release/release.asp?relid=50833. Retrieved 2009-08-08. ^ a b "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India". Global Politician. 2007-01-15. http://globalpolitician.com/22790-india. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^ a b Philip Bowring Published: TUESDAY, APRIL 18, 2006 (2006-04-18). "Maoists who menace India". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2006/04/17/opinion/edbowring.php. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^ a b "South Asia | Senior Maoist 'arrested' in India". BBC News. 2007-12-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7151552.stm. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^ a b Diwanji, A. K. (2003-10-02). "Primer: Who are the Naxalites?". Rediff.com. http://us.rediff.com/news/2003/oct/02spec.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-15. ^ Co-ordinated operations to flush out Naxalites soon The Economic Times, Feb 6, 2009.^ Hindustan Times: History of Naxalism^ Singh, Prakash. The Naxalite Movement in India. New Delhi: Rupa & Co., 1999. p. 101.^ Quoted in Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 73–75 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). Quoted on p. 74.^ Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 73–75 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). p. 74.^ Judith Vidal-Hall, "Naxalites", p. 73–75 in Index on Censorship, Volume 35, Number 4 (2006). p. 73.^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8127869.stm^ "Who's who of Indian Writers, 1999 By K. C. Dutt, Sahitya Akademi". Books.google.com. http://books.google.com/books?id=QA1V7sICaIwC&pg=PA723&lpg=PA723&dq=vilas+manohar+writer&source=web&ots=iZo851RPGh&sig=uEHP-KtmRvUV1iO8KLsoKHx9ccU&hl=en&ei=e-ucSeCrOo_akAWtjPiiBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=6&ct=result. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Armed Conflicts Report - India-Andhra Pradesh". Ploughshares.ca. http://www.ploughshares.ca/libraries/ACRText/ACR-IndiaAP.html. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^ "Asian Centre for Human Rights". Achrweb.org. http://www.achrweb.org/ncm/ncm.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^ "Reuters AlertNet - Indian Maoist violence". Alertnet.org. http://www.alertnet.org/db/crisisprofiles/IN_MAO.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-17. ^Govt. of India " the number of incidents of violence andpolice/civilian casualties were 1435 and 658 as compared to 1420 and636 for the corresponding period of the year 2007"[1]^ www.ipcs.org/pdf_file/issue/IB93-Kujur-Naxal.pdf^ [2]
Further reading
  • Naxalite Politics in India, by J. C. Johari, Institute of Constitutional and Parliamentary Studies, New Delhi, . Published by Research Publications, 1972.
  • The Naxalite Movement, by Biplab Dasgupta. Published by , 1974.
  • The Naxalite Movement: A Maoist Experiment, by Sankar Ghosh. Published by Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay, 1975. ISBN 0883865688.
  • The Naxalite Movement in India: Origin and Failure of the Maoist Revolutionary Strategy in West Bengal, 1967-1971, by Sohail Jawaid. Published by Associated Pub. House, 1979.
  • In the Wake of Naxalbari: A History of the Naxalite Movement in India, by Sumanta Banerjee. Published by Subarnarekha, 1980.
  • India's Simmering Revolution: The Naxalite Uprising, by Sumanta Banerjee. Published by Zed Books, 1984. ISBN 0862320372.
  • Tribal Guerrillas: The Santals of West Bengal and the Naxalite Movement, by Edward Duyker. Published by Oxford University Press, 1987.
  • The Naxalite Movement in India, by Prakash Singh. Published by Rupa, 1995. ISBN 8171672949.
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The World socialist system and anti-communism. [Translated from the Russian by A. Bratov]
By A. (Translator) Bratov


    * Publisher:   Moscow Progress Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   284
    * Publication Date:   1972-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0714705136
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780714705132


http://plunder.com/a62a7c66fe

http://ifile.it/6aj0u1o

The teachings of Karl Marx / by V. I. Lenin
By Vladimir Ilich (1870-1924) Lenin


    * Publisher:   New York : International Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:  
    * Publication Date:   1930-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B00100IGEG
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  


http://ifile.it/q3zac09
http://plunder.com/c27233e24d


The John Reed Centenary 1887-1920
By Corliss, ed. Lamont


    * Publisher:   John Reed Centenary Committee
    * Number Of Pages:  
    * Publication Date:   1988
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B000UCF396
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  

John Reed (journalist)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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For other persons of the same name, see John Reed.
John Silas Reed

John Reed, American journalist
Born     October 22, 1887(1887-10-22)
Portland, Oregon, USA
Died     October 17, 1920 (aged 32)
Moscow, Russian SFSR
Cause of death     Scrub typhus
Resting place     Kremlin Wall Necropolis
Nationality     United States American
Alma mater     Harvard University
Occupation     Journalist
Political party     Communist Labor Party
Spouse(s)     Louise Bryant
Signature

John Silas Reed (October 22, 1887 – October 17, 1920), often referred to by his nickname, Jack, was an American journalist, poet, and communist activist, remembered for his first-hand account of the Bolshevik Revolution, Ten Days that Shook the World. He was married to writer and feminist Louise Bryant.
Contents
[hide]

    * 1 Biography
          o 1.1 Early life and education
          o 1.2 Bohemian journalist
          o 1.3 War correspondent
          o 1.4 Witness to the Russian Revolution
          o 1.5 Radical political activist
          o 1.6 Comintern functionary
          o 1.7 Death and legacy
    * 2 Bibliography
    * 3 Footnotes
    * 4 Further reading
    * 5 External links

[edit] Biography
[edit] Early life and education

John Reed was born on October 22, 1887, in his maternal grandmother's mansion in Portland, Oregon.[1] His mother, Margaret Green Reed, was the daughter of a leading Portland citizen who had made a fortune through three enterprises: as owner the first gas works in Oregon, owner of the first pig iron smelter on the west coast, and as second owner of the Portland water works.[2] John's father, Charles Jerome Reed, was the representative of an agricultural machinery manufacturer who had come to town from the East. With his ready wit, he quickly won acceptance in Portland’s business community.[3] His parents were married in 1886.

Young John, universally called "Jack" by those who knew him, grew up surrounded by nurses and servants, his upper-class playmates carefully selected. He had a brother, Harry, two years his junior.[4] A sickly child, Jack and his brother were sent to the recently-established Portland Academy, a private school.[5] Jack was bright enough to pass his courses but could not be bothered to work for top marks, as he found book-learning dry and tedious.[6] In September 1904, Jack was sent to Morristown School in New Jersey to prepare for college as his father had never attended a university and wanted his sons to go to Harvard.[7] At this prep school, Jack continued his track record of poor classroom performance, although he did make the football team and showed literary promise.[8]

John Reed failed in his first attempt on the admission exam but passed on his second try and in the fall of 1906 he entered Harvard College, one of the most elite universities in America.[9] Tall, handsome, and light-hearted, Jack threw himself into all manner of student activities. He was a member of the cheerleading team, the swimming team, and the dramatic club. He served on the editorial boards of the Lampoon and the Harvard Monthly and as president of the Harvard Glee Club. He wrote a play produced by the Hasty Pudding Club, and was made ivy orator and poet. Jack tried and failed to make the Harvard teams for football and crew, but he participated and excelled in other competitive sports of lesser prestige, such as swimming and water polo.[10]

Jack also attended meetings of the Socialist Club, over which his friend Walter Lippmann presided, but he never joined. Still, the club left its impact on his psyche. The group had social legislation introduced into the state legislature, attacked the university for failing to pay its servants living wages, and petitioned the administration for the establishment of a course in Socialism.[11] Reed later recalled:

    "All this made no ostensible difference in the look of Harvard society, and probably the club-men and the athletes, who represented us to the world, never even heard of it. But it made me, and many others, realize that there was something going on in the dull outside world more thrilling than college activities, and turned our attention to the writings of men like H.G. Wells and Graham Wallas, wrenching us away from the Oscar Wildian dilettantism which had possessed undergraduate litterateurs for generations."[12]

Reed graduated from Harvard College in 1910, and that summer he set out to see more of the "dull outside world," visiting England, France, and Spain before returning home to America the following spring.[13]
[edit] Bohemian journalist

John Reed had determined to become a journalist and he set out to make his mark in the big city in which that industry was based, New York. Jack made use of a valuable contact he had made at Harvard, the muckraking journalist Lincoln Steffens, who appreciated Reed's skills and intellect at an early date. Steffens landed his young admirer an entry-level position on the American Magazine, reading manuscripts, correcting proof, and later helping with the composition. Reed supplemented his insufficient salary by taking an additional job as the business manager of a new short-lived quarterly magazine called Landscape Architecture.[14]

Reed made his home in Greenwich Village, a burgeoning hub of poets and artists. He came to love New York, relentlessly exploring it and writing poems about it. His formal jobs on the magazines paid the rent, but it was as a freelance journalist that Jack sought to establish himself. He collected rejection slips circulating an essay and short stories about his six months in Europe, eventually breaking through in The Saturday Evening Post. Within a year, Reed had other work accepted by Collier's, The Forum, and The Century Magazine. One of his poems had been set to music by composer Arthur Foote, and the editors at The American had come to see him as a contributor and begun to publish his work.[15] John Reed was a young man on the rise.

His serious interest in social problems was first aroused at about this time by Lincoln Steffens and Ida Tarbell, and once aroused it quickly led him to a far more radical position than theirs. In 1913 he joined the staff of The Masses, edited by Max Eastman and his sister Crystal. To this publication Jack contributed more than 50 articles, reviews, and shorter pieces.

The first of Reed's many arrests came in Paterson, New Jersey, in 1913, for attempting to speak on behalf of strikers in the New Jersey silk mills. The harsh treatment meted out by the authorities to the strikers and a short jail term which followed further radicalized him. Jack allied himself with the syndicalist trade union the Industrial Workers of the World at this time.[16] Jack's account of his experiences appeared in June as an article "War in Paterson." During the same year, following a suggestion made by IWW leader Bill Haywood, Jack put on "The Pageant of the Paterson Strike" in Madison Square Garden as a benefit for the strikers.[17]

In the autumn of 1913 John Reed was sent to Mexico by the Metropolitan Magazine to report the Mexican Revolution.[18] He shared the perils of Pancho Villa's army for four months, present with Villa's Constitutional Army when it defeated Federal forces at Torreón, opening the way for its advance on Mexico City.[19] Reed's time with the Villistas resulted in a series of outstanding magazine articles that brought Jack a national reputation as a war correspondent. Reed deeply sympathized with the plight of the peons and vehemently opposed American intervention, which came shortly after he left. Jack adored Villa, while Carranza left him cold. Jack's Mexican reports were later republished in book form as Insurgent Mexico, which appeared in 1914.

On April 30, 1914, John Reed arrived in Colorado, scene of the recent Ludlow massacre. There he spent a little more than a week and investigated the events, spoke on behalf of the miners, wrote an impassioned article on the subject ("The Colorado War", published in July), and came to believe much more deeply in class conflict.[20] That summer he spent in Provincetown, Massachusetts with Mabel Dodge and her son, putting together Insurgent Mexico and interviewing President Wilson on the subject. The resulting report, much watered down at White House insistence, was not a success.[21]
[edit] War correspondent

On August 14, 1914, shortly after Germany declared war on France, he set sail for neutral Italy, having been sent by the Metropolitan. He met his lover, Mabel Dodge, in Naples and the pair made their way to Paris. Reed saw the war as emerging from imperialist commercial rivalries and showed little sympathy for any of the participants. In an unsigned piece entitled "The Traders’ War," published in the September 1914 issue of The Masses, Jack passionately wrote:

    "The real War, of which this sudden outburst of death and destruction is only an incident, began long ago. It has been raging for tens of years, but its battles have been so little advertised that they have been hardly noted. It is a clash of Traders...

    "What has democracy to do in alliance with Nicholas, the Tsar? Is it Liberalism which is marching from the Petersburg of Father Gapon, from the Odessa of the pogroms?...

    "No. There is a falling out among commercial rivals....

    "We, who are Socialists, must hope — we may even expect — that out of this horror of bloodshed and dire destruction will come far-reaching social changes — and a long step forward towards our goal of Peace among Men.

    "But we must not be duped by this editorial buncombe about Liberalism going forth to Holy War against Tyranny.

    "This is not Our War."[22]

In France he was frustrated by wartime censorship and the difficulty of accessing the front. Reed and Dodge went to London and Dodge soon left for New York, to the relief of Reed. The rest of 1914 he spent drinking with French prostitutes, and pursuing an affair with a German woman.[23] The pair went to Berlin in early December. While there Jack interviewed Karl Liebknecht, who was one of the few socialists in Germany to vote against war credits. Reed was deeply disappointed by the general collapse in working-class solidarity promised by the Second International, and by its replacement with militarism and nationalism.[24]

He returned to New York in the middle of that month and occupied himself writing about the war. A return to Eastern Europe followed in 1915, a journey on which he was accompanied by Canadian artist and frequent Masses contributor Boardman Robinson. Traveling from Thessaloniki, they met scenes of profound devastation in Serbia (including a bombed-out Belgrade), also going through Bulgaria and Romania. They passed through the Jewish Pale of Settlement in Bessarabia, and in Chełm they were arrested, incarcerated for several weeks and liable to be shot for espionage had not the American ambassador shown some interest.
Jack Reed, circa 1917.

Traveling to Russia, Reed was outraged to learn that the ambassador in Petrograd was inclined to believe they were spies. Reed and Robinson were re-arrested when they tried to slip into Romania. This time it was the British ambassador (Robinson being a British subject) who finally secured permission for them to leave, but not before all their papers were seized in Kiev. In Bucharest the duo spent time piecing together their journey, with Reed at one point traveling to Constantinople in hopes of seeing action at Gallipoli. These experiences led to Reed's book, The War in Eastern Europe, published in April 1916.

After returning to New York, he paid a visit to his mother in Portland, where he met and fell in love with Louise Bryant, who joined him on the East coast in January 1916. Though happy, both had affairs with others rather freely, in accord with the bohemian sensibilities of sexual liberation in common currency in that day. Early in 1916 Reed met Eugene O'Neill, and beginning that May the three rented a cottage in Provincetown. Not long after, Bryant and O'Neill began a romance.[25]

That summer Reed donned his reporter's hat and covered the Presidential nominating conventions. Reed himself endorsed Woodrow Wilson, believing that he would make good on his promise to keep America out of the war.[26] The year proved an eventful one for Jack, highlighted by his November marriage to Louise Bryant in Peekskill and an operation to remove a kidney conducted at Johns Hopkins Hospital which forced his hospitalization until mid-December.[27] The operation fortuitously rendered him ineligible for conscription and saved him later from the fate of a conscientious objector. During 1916 he also published privately Tamburlaine and Other Poems in an edition of 500 copies.

As the country raced towards war, the radical Reed was marginalized: his relationship with the Metropolitan was over. Jack pawned his late father's watch and sold his Cape Cod cottage to birth control activist Margaret Sanger.[28] When Wilson asked for a declaration of war on April 2, 1917, Reed shouted at a hastily-convened meeting of the People's Council in Washington: "This is not my war, and I will not support it. This is not my war, and I will have nothing to do with it."[29] In July and August Reed continued to write aggressive articles for The Masses, which the Post Office now refused to mail, and for Seven Arts, which as a result of an article by Reed and one earlier in the summer by Randolph Bourne, had its financial backing cut off and ceased publication.[30] Reed was stunned by the nation's pro-war fervor and his career lay in ruins.

He followed Pancho Villa and filmed most of his battles during the Mexican Revolution.
[edit] Witness to the Russian Revolution

On August 17, 1917, John Reed and Louise Bryant set sail from New York to Europe, having first provided the State Department with legally sworn assurances that either would represent the Socialist Party at a forthcoming conference in Stockholm.[31] The pair were going as working journalists to see for themselves and report upon the sensational developments taking place in the fledgling republic of Russia. Traveling by way of Finland, the pair arrived in the capital city of Petrograd immediately after the failed military coup of monarchist General Lavr Kornilov, an attempt to topple the Provisional Government of Alexander Kerensky by force of arms. Jack and Louise found the Russian economy was in shambles as several of the subject nationalities of the old empire, such as Finland and Ukraine, autonomous and seeking to forge a military accommodation with Germany.
The cover of this 1919 British pamphlet emphasizes Reed's short-lived status as Soviet consul.

John Reed and Louise Bryant wound up at ground zero for the October Revolution, in which the Russian Communist Party headed by Vladimir Lenin toppled the Kerensky government in what they believed to be the first blow struck in a worldwide socialist revolution.

The food situation in the capital was dire. Jack later recalled:

    The last month of the Kerensky regime was marked first by the falling off of the bread supply from 2 pounds a day to 1 pound, to half a pound, to a quarter of a pound, and, the final week, no bread at all. Holdups and crime increased to such an extent that you could hardly walk down the streets. The papers were full of it. Not only had the government broken down, but the municipal government had absolutely broken down. The city militia was quite disorganized and up in the air, and the street-cleaning apparatus and all that sort of thing had broken down — milk and everything of that sort."[32]

A mood for radical change was in the air. The Bolsheviks, seeking an all-socialist government and immediate end to Russian participation in the war, sought the transfer of power from Kerensky to a Congress of Soviets, a gathering of elected workers' and soldiers' deputies to be convened in October. The Kerensky government saw this as a clear effort to replace its own regime with another and moved to shut down the Bolshevik press, issuing warrants of arrest for the Soviet leaders and preparing to transfer the troops of the Petrograd garrison, believed to be unreliable, back to the front. A Military Revolutionary Committee of the Soviets, dominated by the Bolshevik Party, determined to seize power on behalf of the future Congress of Soviets and at 11 pm on the evening of November 7, 1917, it captured the Winter Palace, seat of Kerensky's government.[33] Reed and Bryant were present during the fall of the Winter Palace, the symbolic event which initiated the Bolshevik Revolution.[34]

Jack was an enthusiastic supporter of the new revolutionary socialist government and he went to work for the new People's Commissariat for Foreign Affairs, translating decrees and news of the actions of the new government into English. "I also collaborated in the gathering of material and data and data and distributing of papers to go into the German trenches," Reed later recalled.[35]

Jack was close to the inner circle of the new government. He met Leon Trotsky and was introduced to Lenin during a break of the Constituent Assembly on January 18, 1918. By December, his funds were nearly exhausted and he took employment with an American, Raymond Robbins of the Red Cross. Robbins wished to set up a newspaper promoting American interests; Reed complied, but in the dummy issue he prepared he included a warning beneath the masthead: "This paper is devoted to promoting the interests of American capital."[36]

The dissolution of the Constituent Assembly left Reed unmoved, and two days later, armed with a rifle, he joined a patrol of Red Guards prepared to defend the Foreign Office from counter-revolutionary attack.[37] Reed then attended the opening of the Third Congress of Soviets, where he gave a short speech promising to bring the news of the revolution to America, where he hoped it would "call forth an answer from America's oppressed and exploited masses." American journalist Edgar Sisson told Reed that he was being used by the Bolsheviks for their propaganda, a rebuke he accepted.[37] In January, Trotsky, responding to Reed's concern about the safety of his substantial archive, offered Reed the post of Soviet Consul in New York; as the United States did not recognize the Bolshevik government, his credentials would almost certainly have been rejected and he faced prison (which would have given the Bolsheviks some propaganda material). The appointment was viewed as a massive blunder by most Americans in Petrograd, and the businessman Alex Gumberg directly approached Lenin, showing him a prospectus in which Reed called for massive American capital support for Russia and for the setting up of a newspaper to express the American viewpoint on the negotiations at Brest-Litovsk. Lenin found the proposal unsavory and withdrew the nomination; thereafter, Reed only mentioned Gumberg's name with a string of epithets attached.[38]

Both Jack and Louise netted books from their Russian experiences, with Louise's Six Red Months in Russia appearing first and Jack's 10 Days That Shook the World, published early in 1919, garnering the most notice.

While Louise had made her way home to the United States in January 1918, Jack did not reach New York City until April 28, 1918.[39] On his way back to the USA Reed traveled from Russia to Finland;he didn't have a visa or passport while crossing to Finland. In Turku harbor when Reed was on boarding a ship on his way to Stockholm Finnish police arrested Reed and took him to Kakola prison in Turku until he was released. From Finland Reed traveled to Kristiania, Norway via Stockholm. Because he remained under indictment in the Masses case, Jack was immediately met by federal authorities, who held him on board his ship for more than 8 hours while they searched his belongings. Reeds irreplaceable papers were seized, the raw material from which he intended to write his book, and he was released upon his own recognizance after his attorney, Morris Hillquit, promised to make him available at the Federal Building the next day.[40] His papers were not returned to him until November 1918.
[edit] Radical political activist

Back in America, Jack and Louise took pains to defend the Bolsheviks and oppose American intervention, but a hyper-patriotic public incensed at Russia's departure from the war gave him a generally cold reception. While he was in Russia, his articles in The Masses and particularly a headline, "Knit a straight-jacket for your soldier boy", had been largely instrumental in bringing an indictment against that magazine for sedition. The first Masses trial ended the day before he arrived in a hung jury; the defendants, including himself, were to be retried, so after returning, he immediately posted $2,000 bail on April 29.[41]
Cover of Reed's Voice of Labor, October 1919.

The second Masses trial also ended in a hung jury. In Philadelphia, he stood outside a closed hall on May 31, harangued a crowd of 1,000 until police dragged him away, was charged with inciting a riot, and posted $5,000 bail. He was now more aggressively political, intolerant, and self-destructive;[42] his third arrest since his return from Russia came on September 14, when he was charged with violating the Sedition Act and freed on $5,000 bail. This was a day after possibly the largest demonstration for Bolshevik Russia held in the United States (in The Bronx), when Reed passionately defended the revolution, which he seemed to think was coming to America as well.[43] He tried to prevent Allied intervention, arguing that the Russians were contributing to the war effort by checking German ambitions in the Ukraine and Japanese designs on Siberia, but this came to naught.[44]

On February 21-22, 1919, Bryant was fiercely grilled before a Senate committee exploring Bolshevik propaganda activities in the US, but emerged resilient; Reed followed on the 22nd, delivering quick, subtle testimony which was, however, savagely distorted by the press.[45] Later that day he went to Philadelphia to stand trial for his May speech; despite a hostile judge, press, and patriotic speech by the prosecutor, Reed's lawyer convinced the jury the case was about free speech, and he was acquitted.[45] Returning to New York, Reed continued speaking widely and participating in the various twists of socialist politics that year. He served as editor of The New York Communist, the weekly newspaper issued by the Left Wing Section of Greater New York.

Affiliated with the Left Wing of the Socialist Party, Reed with the other radicals was expelled from the National Socialist Convention in Chicago on August 30, 1919. The radicals then split into two bitterly hostile groups, forming the Communist Labor Party (Reed's, in the creation of which he had been indispensable) and, the next day, the Communist Party of America. Reed was the international delegate of the former, wrote its manifesto and platform, edited its paper, The Voice of Labor, and was denounced as "Jack the Liar" in the Communist Party organ, The Communist. Reed's writings from 1919 display doubts about Western-style democracy and defend the dictatorship of the proletariat, which he saw as a necessary step that would prefigure the true democracy "based upon equality and the liberty of the individual."[46]
[edit] Comintern functionary
Cover of the 1922 German edition of 10 Days That Shook The World, published by the Comintern in Hamburg.

Indicted for sedition and hoping to secure Comintern backing for the CLP, he escaped from America in early October on board a Scandinavian frigate by means of a forged passport, working his way to Bergen as a stoker. Given shore leave, he disappeared to Kristiania, crossed into Sweden on October 22, passed through Finland and made his way to Moscow by train. In the cold winter of 1919-1920, he traveled in the region around Moscow, observing factories, communes, and villages; filling notebooks; and carrying on an affair with a Russian woman.[47] His feelings about the revolution were now ambiguous: on the one hand, he told Emma Goldman, who had recently arrived aboard The Buford and especially complained about the Cheka, that the enemies of the revolution deserved their fate. However, he suggested that she see Angelica Balabanoff, a critic of the current situation, indicating he wanted Goldman to hear the other side.[48]

Reed, although facing the threat of arrest in Illinois, tried to return to home after February 1920. At that time, the Soviets organized a convention to establish a United Communist Party of America.[49] Reed attempted to leave Russia through Latvia that month, but his train never arrived forcing him to hitch a ride in the boxcar of an eastbound military train to Petrograd.[50] In March, he crossed into Helsinki, where he had radical friends, including a future politician and SDKL member of parliament Hella Wuolijoki, and, with their help,was hidden in the hold of a freighter. On the 13th, customs officials finally found him in a coal bunker. He was taken to the police station, where he maintained that he was the seaman "Jim Gormley." Eventually, the jewels, photographs, letters, and fake documents he had in his possession forced him to reveal his true identity. Although beaten several times and threatened with torture, he refused, however, to surrender the names of his local contacts. As a result of his silence, he was not able to be tried for treason, and was instead convicted of smuggling and having jewels in his possession (102 small diamonds worth $14,000, which were confiscated).

The US Secretary of State was satisfied with Reed's arrest and pressured the Finns for his papers. American authorities, however, remained indifferent to Reed's fate.[51] Although Reed paid the fine for smuggling, he was still detained illegally, and his physical condition and state of mind deteriorated rapidly. He suffered from depression and insomnia, wrote alarming letters to Bryant, and threatened a hunger strike on May 18.[52] He was finally released in early June, and sailed for Tallinn on the 5th. Two days later, he traveled to Petrograd, recuperating from malnourishment and scurvy caused by having been fed dried fish almost exclusively, but his spirits were high.[53]

At the end of June, he traveled to Moscow and, after discussing with Bryant the possibility of her joining him, she gained passage on a Swedish tramp steamer and arrived in Gothenburg on August 10.[53] At the same time, Reed attended the second Comintern congress. Although his mood was as jovial and boisterous as ever, his physical appearance had deteriorated; he was quite thin, seemed weak and was sallow and his face lined.[54]

During this congress, he bitterly objected to the deference other revolutionaries showed to the Russians, who assumed the tide of revolutionary fervor was ebbing making it necessary for the communist party to work within the existing institutions – a policy Reed felt would be disastrous.[55] He was contemptuous of the bullying tactics displayed during the congress by Karl Radek and Grigory Zinoviev, who ordered Reed to attend the Congress of the Peoples of the East to be held at Baku on August 15.

It was a long journey, five days by train through countryside devastated by civil war and infected by typhus. Reed was reluctant to go and asked to arrive later, as he had planned to go first to Petrograd, where Bryant was traveling from Murmansk. Zinoviev insisted Reed take the official train: "the Comintern has made a decision. Obey." Reed would normally have rebelled at being spoken to with such contempt, but he needed Soviet good-will at the moment and was not prepared for a final break with the Comintern, so he made the trip with great reluctance.[56] Reed's actions and feelings during this time are a matter of speculation, but years after abandoning Communism, his friend Benjamin Gitlow asserted that the treatment Reed received from Zinoviev filled Reed with bitter disillusionment for the Communist movement.[57]

During his time in Baku, Reed received a telegram announcing Bryant's arrival in Moscow. He followed her there, arriving on September 15, and was able to tell her of the events of the preceding eight months. He appeared older and his clothes were in tatters. While in Moscow, he took her to meet Lenin, Trotsky, Lev Kamenev, and other leading Bolsheviks and also to visit Moscow's ballet and art galleries.
[edit] Death and legacy
John Reed's body lying in state, Moscow 1920

Reed was determined to return home, but fell ill on September 25. At first diagnosed with influenza, he was hospitalized five days later and was found to have spotted typhus. Bryant spent all her time with him, but there were no medicines to be obtained because of the Allied blockade. His mind started to wander, and then he lost the use of the right side of his body and could no longer speak. His wife was holding his hand when he died in Moscow on October 17, 1920.[58] After a hero's funeral, his body was buried at the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.

The uses of John Reed as a symbol in popular culture have been varied. Some have dismissed him as a "romantic revolutionary" and a "playboy" — a vapid dilettante pretending to profess revolutionary sensibilities. For the Communist movement to which he belonged, Reed became a symbol of the international nature of the Bolshevik revolution, a martyr buried at the Kremlin wall amidst solemn fanfare, his name to be uttered reverently as a member of the radical pantheon.[59] Others, such as his old friend and comrade Benjamin Gitlow, made the claim that Reed had begun to shun the bureaucracy and violence of Soviet Communism late in his life and have thus sought to posthumously enlist Reed in their own anti-communist cause.

John Reed has also been an influence upon the cinema. Soviet director Sergei Eisenstein's influential 1927 silent film October: Ten Days That Shook the World was based on Reed's book.

Half a century later, the 1981 film Reds, based upon the life of John Reed, was made. Warren Beatty starred as Reed, while Diane Keaton played the part of Louise Bryant and Jack Nicholson that of Eugene O'Neill. The movie won three Academy Awards, and was nominated for nine others. Other film portrayals of Reed include the 1982 two-part Soviet production Red Bells, starring Franco Nero; and the 1973 film Reed: Mexico Insurgente, based on his accounts of the Mexican Revolution.

A persistent urban legend exists that John Reed came from the family for which Reed College, an elite liberal arts school located in Portland, was named. Despite the college's reputation for leftist politics, there is no truth to this rumor.[1] [2]
[edit] Bibliography

    * Insurgent Mexico. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1914.
    * The War in Eastern Europe. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1916.
    * Tamburlaine and Other Verses. Riverside, CT: Hillacre, 1917.
    * Ten Days that Shook the World. New York: Boni and Liveright, 1919.
    * Red Russia: The Triumph of the Bolsheviki. London: Workers Socialist Federation, 1919. —pamphlet collecting journallism from The Liberator.
    * Daughter of the Revolution and Other Stories. Floyd Dell, ed. New York: Vanguard Press, 1927.

[edit] Footnotes

   1. ^ Granville Hicks with John Stuart, John Reed: The Making of a Revolutionary. New York: Macmillan, 1936. Page 1.
   2. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 2.
   3. ^ Eric Homberger, John Reed. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990. Pages 7-8. Note that the family's wealth came from the Green side of the family, not the Eastern-transplanted Reed side.
   4. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 8.
   5. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 9
   6. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 7.
   7. ^ Michael Munk,, John Reed, marxists.org. Accessed November 4, 2007.
   8. ^ Hornberger, John Reed, pg. 12.
   9. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 15.
  10. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 16.
  11. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, page 33.
  12. ^ Quoted in Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 33.
  13. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 51.
  14. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 65.
  15. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 66.
  16. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 49.
  17. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 49.
  18. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 55.
  19. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 69.
  20. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pp. 75-76.
  21. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 79.
  22. ^ John Reed, "The Trader's War," The Masses, v. 5, no. 12, whole no. 40 (Sept. 1914), pp. 16-17. The article appears without a byline, attributed to "a well-known American author and war correspondent who is compelled by arrangements with another publication to withhold his name."
  23. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 87.
  24. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 89.
  25. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 114.
  26. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pp. 112-116.
  27. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 118.
  28. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 120.
  29. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pg. 122.
  30. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pp. 128-129.
  31. ^ Testimony of John Reed, Brewing and Liquor Interests and German and Bolshevik Propaganda: Report and Hearings of the Subcommittee on the Judiciary, United States Senate..., vol 3. pg. 563. Hereafter: Overman Committee Report, v. 3.
  32. ^ Testimony of John Reed, Overman Committee Report, v. 3, pg. 575.
  33. ^ Testimony of John Reed, Overman Committee Report, v. 3, pg. 569.
  34. ^ Testimony of John Reed, Overman Committee Report, v. 3, pg. 570.
  35. ^ Testimony of John Reed, Overman Committee Report, v. 3, pg. 565.
  36. ^ Homberger, John Reed, pp. 159-60
  37. ^ a b Homberger, p. 161
  38. ^ Homberger, pp. 161-3
  39. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 303.
  40. ^ Hicks with Stuart, John Reed, pg. 303.
  41. ^ Homberger, p. 167
  42. ^ Homberger, p. 172
  43. ^ Homberger, p. 174
  44. ^ Homberger, p. 171
  45. ^ a b Homberger, p. 180
  46. ^ Homberger, pp. 191-3
  47. ^ Homberger, p. 210
  48. ^ Homberger, pp. 202-3
  49. ^ Homberger, pp. 203-4
  50. ^ Homberger, p. 204
  51. ^ Homberger, pp. 205-6
  52. ^ Homberger, p. 206
  53. ^ a b Homberger, p. 207
  54. ^ Homberger, pp. 207-8
  55. ^ Homberger, p. 208
  56. ^ Homberger, pp. 212-3
  57. ^ Homberger, p. 214
  58. ^ Homberger, p. 215
  59. ^ By the 1930s, literary John Reed Clubs, affiliated with the Communist Party, existed in his honor in many large cities of the United States.

[edit] Further reading

    * Hicks, Granville with John Stuart, John Reed: The Making of a Revolutionary. New York: Macmillan, 1936.
    * Homberger, Eric, John Reed: Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
    * Homberger, Eric and John Biggart (eds.), John Reed and the Russian Revolution: Uncollected Articles, Letters and Speeches on Russia, 1917-1920. Basingstoke, England: Macmillan, 1992.
    * Rosenstone, Robert A. Romantic Revolutionary: A biography of John Reed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990.

[edit] External links
Search Wikimedia Commons     Wikimedia Commons has media related to: John Reed (journalist)
Search Wikisource     Wikisource has original works written by or about: John Reed

    * The John Reed Internet Archive on Marxists.org
    * The Last Days With John Reed by Louise Bryant
    * Works by John Reed at Project Gutenberg
    * Ten Days That Shook The World at Project Gutenberg
    * Works by or about John Reed (journalist) in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
    * John Reed (journalist) at Find a Grave

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By Samir Amin


    * Publisher:   Southern African Research and Documentation Centre
    * Number Of Pages:   70
    * Publication Date:   1990-12
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0797409459
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780797409453
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Sartre Against Stalinism (Berghahn Monographs in French Studies)
By Ian H. Birchall


    * Publisher:   Berghahn Books
    * Number Of Pages:   242
    * Publication Date:   2004-04
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   1571816216
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9781571816214



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Marxism, Maoism, and Utopianism: Eight Essays
By Maurice J. Meisner


    * Publisher:   Univ of Wisconsin Pr
    * Number Of Pages:   224
    * Publication Date:   1982-12
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0299084205
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780299084202
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Marx, Engels, Lenin: On Historical Materialism
By Engels, Lenin Marx


    * Publisher:  Progress Publishers, Moscow; 1ST edition (1972)
    * Number Of Pages:  751
    * Publication Date:   1972
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B00244TVI2
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  



Product Description:

First edition.

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Karl Marx, Frederick Engels: Marx and Engels Collected Works 1871-1874 (Karl Marx, Frederick Engels: Collected Works v.23)
By Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels


    * Publisher:   International Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   848
    * Publication Date:   1988-07
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0717805239
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780717805235


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By bertram silverman


    * Publisher:   Atheneum
    * Number Of Pages:  
    * Publication Date:   1971-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   1199467227
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Leon Trotsky on the Paris Commune. Introduction by Doug Jenness.
By Leon Trotsky


    * Publisher:   pathfinder
    * Number Of Pages:  63
    * Publication Date:   1970-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0028GCHLY
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  


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La guerre de 1870-1871 et la commune (Paris Commune)
By Bourgin Georges


    * Publisher:   Edit. Nationales
    * Number Of Pages:  432
    * Publication Date:   1939
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0000DUBX7
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  
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Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels: Articles in the New American cyclopaedia (Independent socialist clippingbooks)
By Karl Marx


    * Publisher:   Independent Socialist Press
    * Number Of Pages:   211
    * Publication Date:   1969
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0006CE6SY
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Karl Marx, Beacon for Our Times (New World Paperbacks)
By Gus Hall


    * Publisher:   International Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   94
    * Publication Date:   1983-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0717806073
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780717806072

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Interviews and Recollections of Karl Marx (Interviews & recollections)
By David McLellan


    * Publisher:   Palgrave Macmillan
    * Number Of Pages:   192
    * Publication Date:   1981-08
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0333283627
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780333283622

Window on Shanghai: Letters From China, 1965-67
By sophia knight


    * Publisher:   Deutsch
    * Number Of Pages:   256
    * Publication Date:   1967-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0000CNP0R
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  

acupuncture bamboo bicycles bourgeois brothel Buddhas Buddhist Cambodia Canton capitalist Chairman Mao Changsha chess Chiang Kai-shek China Chinese boxing Chinese character Chinese food Chinese lessons Chinese Revolution Chou En-Lai class struggle Communist comprador counter-revolutionaries Cultural Revolution East is Red England English fountain pen Friendship Store Hangchow harmonica headmistress Hong Kong Irkutsk Jieh Kuomintang little red book Liu Li Long March loudspeaker Madame Liu manual labour Marxist meningitis metres Mongolian Moscow Nanchang Nanking Road National Day Overseas Chinese Pakistan peasants pedicab drivers Peking opera People's Liberation Army personality cult piano pickpockets ping-pong porridge pre-Liberation prostitutes reactionaries Red Army Red Guards revisionism serf Shanghai Mansion shrubs Sinkiang socialist Soviet Union Suchow Sukarno Summer Palace table-tennis Tibet Tibetan turnips Uighurs Union Jack USSR Vietnam Vietnamese violin West Lake Wuhan Yangtse Yellow River Yenan Young Pioneers yuan

http://www.plunder.com/window-on-shanghai-pdf-download-fd0fa29bb8.htm

http://ifile.it/167h85k
http://www.plunder.com/karl-marx-interviews-and-recollections-pdf-download-279a99876e.htm


How To Read Karl Marx
By Ernst Fischer, Franz Marek


    * Publisher:   Monthly Review Press
    * Number Of Pages:   224
    * Publication Date:   1996-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0853459738
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780853459736



Product Description:

A brief, clear, and faithful exposition of Marx's major premises, with particular attention to historical context.

http://ifile.it/udqgoe9
http://www.plunder.com/How-To-Read-Karl-Marx-0853459738-pdf-download-cd7e54ee78.htm

History of the Communist Party of the United States
By William Zebulon Foster


    * Publisher:   Greenwood Press
    * Number Of Pages:   600
    * Publication Date:   1968-06
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0837104238
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780837104232

http://ifile.it/254ym8v
http://www.plunder.com/History-of-the-Communist-Party-of-the-United-States-by-William-Z-Foster-pdf-download-0ee84c14cc.htm

Historical Dictionary of Socialism
By James C. Docherty


    * Publisher:   The Scarecrow Press, Inc.
    * Number Of Pages:   376
    * Publication Date:   1997-11-28
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0810833581
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780810833586


Product Description:

Recent election wins by left of center parties in Western Europe testify to the continued vitality of the tradition of democratic socialism. Socialism has been the leading ideology for social change for over a century. It has been a philosophy, a mass movement, and a substitute religion. It has inspired millions and aroused fear and revulsion in its enemies. It has sought to change the world for the better and in many important respects has done so. Yet socialism remains a paradox. Professing only to do good, great crimes against humanity have been committed in its name. Democratic and egalitarian in theory, it has been used to justify totalitarian dictatorship in practice. This dictionary offers a reliable, comprehensive introduction and guide to this contentious social movement and ideology, examining where it has succeeded and where it has failed. It traces the evolution of socialism from the early nineteenth century up to the present. Unlike other general works on the subject, it is primarily concerned with the democratic tradition of socialism and is careful to differentiate this tradition from those elements of socialism which later became communism. It contains 327 entries and many cross-references which cover not just thinkers, ideas and political parties, but also education, women, literature, and policies. With glossary, chronology, statistical appendix and bibliography.

http://ifile.it/ou0kglh
http://www.plunder.com/Historical-Dictionary-of-Socialism-0810833581-pdf-download-c18e3592e5.htm
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-12-08 07:59 | 76 楼
heiss93
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A good secure location to upload ebooks to is http://www.archive.org/create/
  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-12-17 12:38 | 77 楼
maolive
级别: 精灵王


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no pass scanned pdf 46m

http://www.plunder.com/fundamentals-of-marxism-leninism-manual-pdf-download-884feb071f.htm

FUNDAMENTALS OF MARXISM-LENINISM MANUAL
By CLEMENS DUTT (Отто Вилле Куусинен,Клеменс Пальме Дутт)


    * Publisher:   MOSCOW FOREIGN LANGUAGES PUBLISHING
    * Number Of Pages:  734
    * Publication Date:   1963-01-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B002JMR0U0
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  

Fundamentals of Marxism-Leninism: manual

Отто Вилле Куусинен, Клеменс Пальме Дутт

Форейгн Лангуагес Пуб. Хусе, 1963

keywords:

achieve activity agricultural basis become bour bourgeois bourgeoisie capitalist countries class struggle co-operation cognition colonial commodity communism Communist Parties consciousness contradictions created cultural democratic dialectics dictatorship economic Engels enterprises existence experience exploitation fact feudal forms human idealist ideological imperialism imperialist important increase independence industry interests kulaks labour law of value laws Lenin wrote Marx Marxism-Leninism Marxist masses material materialist means of production ment monopoly capital national economy national-liberation nationalisation nature objective objective laws October Revolution oppression organisation peace peasantry peasants People's Democracies period phenomena philosophical political possible principles productive forces Programme progress proletarian democracy proletariat reactionary relations result revolutionary role rule Russia scientific social Social-Democratic socialist countries socialist revolution socialist society socialist system Soviet Union sphere state-monopoly capitalism surplus-value task theory tion transition unity V. I. Lenin victory wages whole workers working-class movement world outlook world socialist


Fundamental laws of the Chinese soviet republic,
By 1931-1937) China (Soviet Republic Béla Kun


    * Publisher:   International publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   87
    * Publication Date:   1934
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0006DBRMQ
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:


http://www.plunder.com/Fundamental-laws-of-the-Chinese-soviet-republic-pdf-download-1f58b81c85.htm


http://ifile.it/29e4amp
http://www.plunder.com/friction-aids-Japan-pdf-download-298f6a1d4e.htm

Friction Aids Japan: Documents Concerning Instances of Friction, 1939-1940

This book collects documents concerning Instances of Friction, 1939-1940, between Guomingdang troops and communist troops in China.

New China Information Committee, Chungking, China. Bulletin. ; no. 14

Press: New China Information Committee

70 pages


http://www.plunder.com/housing-under-capitalism-pdf-download-d89176d2a4.htm

Housing under capitalism (International Pamphlets)
By Sidney Hill


    * Publisher:   International Pamphlets
    * Number Of Pages:   39
    * Publication Date:   1935
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B00087DKIO
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  


http://www.plunder.com/japan-s-drive-for-conquest-pdf-download-9f0b6025ec.htm

http://www.plunder.com/shovels-and-guns-pdf-download-b3d26b4f15.htm


Shovels and guns: The CCC in action (International pamphlets :)
By James Lasswell


    * Publisher:   International Pamphlets
    * Number Of Pages:   23
    * Publication Date:   1935
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B00088MIAO
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  


http://www.plunder.com/sovie-russia-and-religion-pdf-download-4e3e0c62d0.htm
Soviet Russia and religion, (International pamphlets)
By Corliss Lamont


    * Publisher:   International pamphlets
    * Number Of Pages:   23
    * Publication Date:   1936
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B000876L1M
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  

http://www.plunder.com/the-truth-about-the-liberty-league-pdf-download-d6119ebec6.htm
The truth about the Liberty League (International pamphlets)
By Grace Hutchins


    * Publisher:   International Pamphlets
    * Number Of Pages:   30
    * Publication Date:   1936
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B0008924LQ
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  

http://www.plunder.com/karl-marx-notebook-on-the-paris-commune-pdf-download-2b69d576b5.htm

Notebook on the Paris Commune;: Press excerpts & notes (Independent Socialist clippingbooks)
By Karl Marx


    * Publisher:   Independent Socialist Press
    * Number Of Pages:   108
    * Publication Date:   1971
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0912502088
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780912502083

http://www.plunder.com/the-permanent-war-economy-pdf-download-75e9555640.htm

The Permanent war economy
Independent socialist clippingbooks no.7
The Permanent War Economy, T. N. Vance
T. N. Vance, Hal Draper

Independent Socialist Press, 1970
88 pages



The first author to analyze the system of "Military Keynesianism". The first article in this collection appeared in1944 in the magazine "Politics" edited by Dwight MacDonald. It argued that a system based on military spending wa able to do what the programs of the New Deal could not. The author also explained why this system was ultimately unstable.

keywords:
accumulation American imperialism amount analysis armed forces assets average basic billion bourgeoisie budget burden bureaucracy capi capital accumulation capital levy capitalist class struggle Commerce constant capital consumer controls crease decline defense depression dollars duction econ ernment estimated exports fact Federal figures foreign aid foreign investment geoisie gross gross national product growth Hal Draper impact income groups income tax increase indirect war outlays industry inflation intervention Italics l0 per cent labor labor power living standards ment middle classes military national product nent War Economy nomic outlays to total peak period Permanent War Economy personal income political problem profits after taxes prosperity rate of profit ratio relative rise sector social spending Stalinist imperialism standard of living sumer sumption surplus value T. N. VANCE tion tional total output trend unemployment United wage workers World


PDFPolygraph 15-16.pdf



PDFAlain Badiou Polemics  1844670899.pdf



PDFcentury.pdf

  
  
  

 
 
顶端 Posted: 2009-12-20 04:26 | 78 楼
maolive
级别: 精灵王


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no pass scanned pdf 10m

http://ifile.it/k8w0tep
http://www.plunder.com/Hyperdream9780745643007-pdf-download-39dfb2527e.htm

Hyperdream
By Hélène Cixous


    * Publisher:   Polity
    * Number Of Pages:   176
    * Publication Date:   2009-04-27
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0745643000
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780745643007



Product Description:

Hyperdream is a major new novel by celebrated French author Hélène Cixous. It is a literary tour de force, returning anew to challenge necessity itself, the most implacable of human certainties: you die in the end – and that’s the end. For you, for me.


But what if? What if death did not inevitably spell the end of life?


Hyperdream invests this fragile, tentative suspension of disbelief with the sheer force of its poetic audacity, inventing a sort of magic telephone: a wireless lifeline against all the odds to the dearly departed.


It is a book about time, age, love and the greatest loss. A book which turns on death: on the question or the moment of death, depending on it, expecting it, living off it, taking place at once before and after, but at the same time turning against it, contesting it, outwriting it hopefully, desperately, performatively, as an interruptible interruption.


Hyperdream is a book of mourning, but also of morning, a tragedy-with-comedy and a universal family romance in which it transpires that the narrator is the veritable offspring of a “treasure of literature” in the form of a bed, purchased by her mother from a certain W. Benjamin in 1934, slept on for 40 years by her brother and dreamt of by her friend “J.D.”

http://www.plunder.com/Dictionnaire-biographique-illustr-de-la-Commune-de-Paris-de-1871-2951919247-zip-download-15ee627857.htm
http://ifile.it/x81gtc9

Dictionnaire biographique illustré de la Commune de Paris de 1871
By Gérald Dittmar



    * Publisher:   Dittmar
    * Number Of Pages:   490
    * Publication Date:   2004-03-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   2951919247
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9782951919242
http://www.plunder.com/Coming-to-Writing-and-Other-Essays-0674144368-pdf-download-3566d3d28c.htm
http://ifile.it/pt3inf6

Coming to Writing" and Other Essays
By Helene Cixous, Susan Rubin Suleiman


    * Publisher:   Harvard University Press
    * Number Of Pages:   214
    * Publication Date:   1991-09-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0674144368
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780674144361



Product Description:

Of Helene Cixous's many and diverse writings, few have been translated into English. This collection presents six essays by one of France's most remarkable contemporary authors. Cixous is known for her work on sexual difference and its relations to literary text. Here she explores the problematics of a "feminine" mode of writing, basing her method on the premise that differences between the sexes - viewed as a paragdigm for all difference, which is the organizing principle behind identity and meaning - manifest themselves, write themselves, in texts. "Tancredi Continues" and "The Last Painting or the Portrait of God" question the enigma of sexual difference and the origins of writing through artistic practices analogous to writing (music and painting). The title essay explores Cixous's decision to become an author and the problems raised by a woman's writing herself into history and into a particular literary and cultural tradition. The remaining essays examine another aspect of her work: her ongoing dialogue with the Brazilian writer Clarice Lispector. "By the light of an Apple" and "Clarice Lispector: The Approach" are celebrations of Cixous's Brazilian contemporary. In "The Author in Truth" Cixous quotes passages from Lispector and discusses them in detail, providing a sense of why Lispector has assumed such importance in her life. This volume aims to be of interest not only to scholars who are engaged in the task of understanding Cixous as writer and theorist but to all readers seeking a unique and exciting voice.



Summary: again and again
Rating: 5

When I see orange and russet leaves wet with the mist of a rainy day in Central Park I feel as happy to be alive as I do when I read Cixous' essay "The Last Painting," included in this book. I imagine the shimmering surface of the Cathedral at Rouen. I feel glad that a human can write and think with such clarity and beauty and that I can read her words.


Summary: feminist critical theory
Rating: 5

_Coming to Writing & Other Essays_ is a collection of essays dealing with the relationship between a marginalized person and writing-- that is between a person whose voice has been silenced and her voice. Cixous' writing is frequently narrative, rather than expository, so the text reads like so many short stories. She is irreverent and refreshing in the world of drily written critical thought.


http://www.plunder.com/Dispatches-for-the-New-York-Tribune-Selected-Journalism-of-Karl-Marx-9780141441924-pdf-download-59cf433deb.htm
http://ifile.it/6mq1j7a

Dispatches for the New York Tribune: Selected Journalism of Karl Marx (Penguin Classics)
By Karl Marx


    * Publisher:   Penguin Classics
    * Number Of Pages:   352
    * Publication Date:   2008-02-26
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0141441925
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780141441924



Product Description:

A compelling, wide-ranging collection of Karl Marx’s journalism—available only from Penguin Classics

Karl Marx is arguably the most famous political philosopher of all time, but he was also one of the great foreign correspondents of the nineteenth century. Drawing on his eleven-year tenure at the New York Tribune (which began in 1852), this completely new collection presents Marx’s writings on an abundance of topics, from issues of class and state to world affairs. Particularly moving pieces highlight social inequality and starvation in Britain, while others explore his groundbreaking views on the slave and opium trades. Throughout, Marx’s fresh perspective on nineteenth-century events reveals a social consciousness that remains inspiring to this day.



Summary: A fascinating collection
Rating: 5

These articles, on a huge range of subjects, were written and published between 1852 and 1861. The Tribune's circulation at the time was 200,000, the world's largest.

There are nine articles on China, covering the British state's Opium Wars and its atrocities there. The British state produced opium in India, forced it on China by unprovoked attacks, and then turned round and accused the Chinese of attacking Britain, with "the flimsy pretence that English life and property are endangered by the aggressive acts of the Chinese."

Marx also produced nine articles on wars, revolutions and counter-revolutions in Europe, particularly Greece, Italy, Prussia and Spain.

Nine articles examined events in India, mainly the 1857 revolt in India and changes in imperial finances. Marx wrote that capitalist progress "will neither emancipate nor materially mend the social condition of the mass of the people, depending not only on the development of the productive powers, but on their appropriation by the people." He showed how vicious imperial rule was, citing Lord Dalhousie, India's governor general from 1848 to 1856, "torture in one shape or other is practised by the lower subordinates in every British province."

In eight articles, Marx analysed the struggles in the USA, the British government's role in the slave trade, the mill owners' and The Times' support for the slaveholding South in the American civil war. The mill workers, by contrast, supported the North and abolition, at great cost to themselves. Marx showed how the slave trade was integral to capitalism.

He also produced 14 articles on British politics and society, several elections, `a venal and reckless press', starvation and the Highland clearances, and 11 on poverty, riches and inequality, against global free trade and its promises of peace and prosperity, the financial panic of 1857 with its failing dodgy banks, and the condition of the working class.

http://www.plunder.com/eternal-glory-to-the-great-leader-and-teacher-chairman-mao-tsetung-pdf-download-5a82fcbf4c.htm
http://ifile.it/17lg0h8

Eternal Glory to the Great Leader and Great Teacher Chairman Mao Tsetung!

By et al. Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

this is the official obituray of chairman mao zedong

    * Publisher:   Foreign Languages Press
    * Number Of Pages:  40
    * Publication Date:   1976
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   B001BHPVJ6
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:  

http://www.plunder.com/First-Days-of-the-Year-Emergent-Literatures-Series-0816621179-pdf-download-6d0221d4a4.htm
http://ifile.it/pt65ked

First Days of the Year (Emergent Literatures Series)
By Helene Cixous, Catherine A. F. Macgillivray


    * Publisher:   University of Minnesota Press
    * Number Of Pages:   191
    * Publication Date:   1998-07
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0816621179
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780816621170


http://www.plunder.com/For-Mao-Essays-In-Historical-Materialism-039101014x-pdf-download-77e730d8bf.htm
http://ifile.it/u4nqahx

For Mao Essays In Historical Materialism
By Philip Corrigan


    * Publisher:   Humanity Press/prometheus Bk
    * Number Of Pages:  
    * Publication Date:  
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   039101014X
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780391010147

http://www.plunder.com/Karl-Marx-Frederick-Engels-Collected-Works-Marx-1861-63-V-30-0717805301-pdf-download-56cb57c60e.htm
http://ifile.it/pq8cntf

Karl Marx, Frederick Engels: Collected Works Vol.30 : Marx : 1861-63
By Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels


    * Publisher:   International Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   538
    * Publication Date:   1989-10
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0717805301
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780717805303



Product Description:

Part of a definitive English-language edition, prepared in collaboration with the Institute of Marxism-Leninism in Moscow, which contains all the works of Marx and Engels, whether published in their lifetimes or since. The series includes their complete correspondence and newly discovered works.



http://www.plunder.com/Karl-Marx-Frederick-Engels-Collected-Works-Vol-27-0717805271-pdf-download-679ab85879.htm
http://ifile.it/zkhpojc

Karl Marx, Frederick Engels: Collected Works Vol.27
By Karl Marx


    * Publisher:   International Publishers
    * Number Of Pages:   728
    * Publication Date:   1992-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0717805271
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780717805273



Product Description:

Part of a definitive English-language edition, prepared in collaboration with the Institute of Marxism-Leninism in Moscow, which contains all the works of Marx and Engels, whether published in their lifetimes or since. The series includes their complete correspondence and newly discovered works.


http://www.plunder.com/Love-Itself-In-the-Letter-Box-9780745639895-pdf-download-9f41aa88c7.htm
http://ifile.it/pnkdj9r

Love Itself: In the Letter Box
By Hélène Cixous


    * Publisher:   Polity
    * Number Of Pages:   148
    * Publication Date:   2008-07-21
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0745639895
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780745639895



Product Description:

Love's memories, love recalling itself in letters lost and found over an interval of forty years: Cixous's writer-narrator advances here far into a labyrinth of passions long ago delivered and yet still arriving through the mail, through letters and literature, in other words, the poetry of the post. As for the lovers' returning scenes, they have their addresses in Paris (rue Olivier de Serres, Avenue de Choisy, street names that endlessly feed love's unconscious language) and in New York, but also in a lost oasis of the Egyptian desert during the Napoleonic wars, in Athens and along the shores of a great lake centuries ago in the country of myth. The lovers are poets or soldiers, philosophers or students madly in love with poetry and poets. They are as well mermaids or panthers. Panthers? Yes, for it is the passion of the animal that drives all these lovers to bare themselves, and sometimes their claws, before the beloved. Misunderstandings are often, even inevitably the result. Seconded and witnessed by her passionate, truth-telling cats, Cixous's narrator-writer returns unerringly to moments of errancy inflicted on address and language, those errors and faults when love, perhaps, is listening only to itself, without subject or object, lover or beloved, just love itself, l'amour meme, l'amour m'aime, love loving me, in the letter box of memory.

http://plunder.com/82b81b46a3
http://ifile.it/2q8ibr0


Resources of Hope: Culture, Democracy, Socialism
By Raymond Williams


    * Publisher:   Verso
    * Number Of Pages:   360
    * Publication Date:   1989-03-01
    * ISBN-10 / ASIN:   0860919439
    * ISBN-13 / EAN:   9780860919438
  
  
  

 
 
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