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 Ai Siqi's Dialectical Materialism And Historical Materialism

Ai Siqi's Dialectical Materialism And Historical Materialism

https://archive.org/details/AiSiqiDialecticalMaterialismAndHistoricalMaterialism


Dialectical Materialism and Historical Materialism
                                                                                                        Ai Siqi
                                         The first chapter is the introduction


                                                         The two military battles in the history of philosophy


      The history of all philosophy is the germination of scientific materialism. The history of occurrence and development is also the history of the struggle between materialism and idealism.
   From the ancient plain materialist philosophy to the Marxist materialism, materialism has experienced different concrete forms. Each nation has its own tradition of materialistic philosophical thinking in history. Marxist materialism is the highest form of materialism development. At all stages of historical development, the certain form adopted by materialism was determined by the level of social production and development, economic system, class struggle, and scientific development at that time.
   The ancient simple materialist philosophy was born in the slavery society. Handicraft industry, agriculture. The practical needs of the commercial and maritime industries have led to the emergence and development of astronomy, meteorology, mathematics, mechanics, geography, and the possibility of getting rid of the shackles of clan religious views and the materialist views contained in these scientific knowledge. The germination is systematically created to create a simple materialistic philosophy. The ancient simple materialist philosophy generally reflects the interests of certain progressive factions in the slave owner, and it is subjected to extreme hatred by conservative groups that rely on traditional religion to maintain their status. The philosophers who represent the slave nobles proclaim idealism, maintain religious superstitions, and oppose advanced natural sciences. As soon as the philosophy emerged, the struggle between the two basic lines of materialism and idealism was immediately launched.
   Ancient plain materialists believe that all things in the world are not created by God, but are the result of the development of certain concrete original material changes, and all things can be restored to these original materials. For example, the simple materialists in ancient China believed that these primitive materials were gold, wood, water, fire, and earth (five elements); the ancient Indian sanghajia thought that it was earth, water, fire, and wind (four major). Ancient Greek materialists thought it was water, fire, gas, earth, or one of them, and so on. Shi Bo, of the Western Weekend of China, said: "From earth to gold, wood, water, and fire, to hundreds of things." 1 Ancient Greek Heraclitus said: "The world is all inclusive, it is not by any What God or anyone created, its past, present, and future are eternal living fires that burn according to law and are extinguished according to law." Lenin pointed out: "This is a wonderful explanation of the principle of dialectical materialism."
   The highest form of development of ancient Greek materialism was Democritus's theory of atomism. He believes that everything is made up of tiny indivisible atoms, and atoms of different shapes and weights make up different things. The idealist Plato opposes Democritus's doctrine. He believes that the "ideal world" is the essence of the real world, and the real world is the shadow of the "ideal world." The struggle between Democritus's materialist line and Plato's idealist line is a reflection of the struggle between the advanced slave-owner democrats and the reactionary slave-owners in ancient Greek society.
   During the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period of ancient China, it was a transitional period from slavery society to feudal society. Confucius in the Spring and Autumn Period was the ideological representative of the fallen slave aristocrats, the founder of the Confucian school, and his philosophical ideology was idealistic. He preached the theory of destiny and upheld the traditional religious rituals; his "benevolence" thought defended the "Chou Li" of slavery. He advocated "the doctrine of the mean", obliterating contradictions and opposing change. He has organized the traditional culture. Mencius in the Warring States period developed Confucius' idealism, and he advocated the idea that "everything is prepared for me." Contrary to Confucius and Mencius' idealism, Xunzi proposed that "there is always a day, not a shackle, not a sin." 2 This actually contains materialistic ideas that all things change with their objective laws. At that time, the struggle against Confucian idealism was also the Mohist materialism and the legalist Han Fei's materialism.
   The simple materialism of ancient times generally has the following basic characteristics. First, the ancient plain materialism affirmed the material unity of the world. However, it has a perceptual and intuitive nature, which attributes the unified world to a certain or some specific material form. Second, the ancient plain materialism has a preliminary dialectic thought, which affirms that the world is an all matter, mutual relations, mutual The unity of the role, in which everything changes, moves, is born, and is destroyed. It also preliminarily estimates that the root cause of the development of things is due to the interaction and struggle of opposing forces (cold and hot, yin and yang, positive and negative, etc.) contained within things.
    1 "LaSalle: A Summary of the Philosophy of Heracles' Essence of Heracles", in Lenin's Complete Works, Vol. 38, People's Publishing House, 1960, p. 395.
    2 "Xunzi. Heaven Theory".
    
   Some of the idealists in ancient times also had dialectical ideas, such as Laozi in the Spring and Autumn Period of China and Plato in Ancient Greece. Lao Tzu has no constant things in the world. Everything contains two aspects that are interdependent and mutually antagonistic ("There is no relationship, it is difficult to form a relationship, the length is short, the height is opposite, the sound is harmonious, and before and after. With "), the object must be reversed ("the song is full, the 枉 is straight, the 洼 盈 敝 敝 敝 敝 敝 敝 敝 ” ” ” ” ” ” 物 物 物 物 物 物 物 物 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。 。The idea of ​​ancient dialectics is also simple and intuitive. It only describes the general nature of the whole world. It does not understand the individual parts that make up the world. Its understanding of the general nature of the world is not complete and clear.
   In the ancient slavery society, the specific sciences have not yet been differentiated from philosophy. People can't extract individual parts of the objective world from the total connection of the world and study them separately. Therefore, philosophy cannot be built on each door. The specific science is based on a summary and has to be intuitive and simple.
   After China established the centralized feudal rule in Qin and Han Dynasties, the feudal society continued for more than two thousand years until the Qing Dynasty. The ruling thought of this period was mainly the Confucian idealism theory. But in this long period of time, the materialist philosophy that represents the social forces that oppose the tyrannical rule of the landlord class, demanding the development of productive forces and the development of industry and commerce, has never stopped fighting against idealism. For example, Wang Chong of the Han Dynasty completely denied the existence of a personal God. The use of heaven and earth as material entities, the development of nature is the natural state of all things, and opposed the "human sense" represented by Dong Zhongshu. "The idealism of the "God's God", and sharply criticized the lies about religious superstition and the soul of the human being. Fan Wei of the Northern and Southern Dynasties developed materialism in the struggle against Buddhism. He used the idea of ​​"deservation of the existence of the gods, the expression of the gods and the destruction of the gods"1, demonstrating that the spirit is the role of matter, effectively combating the religious superstition of Buddhism's soul immortality and karma. Liu Zongyuan and Liu Yuxi of the Tang Dynasty opposed Han Yu’s idealistic view that “Heaven” can reward and punish evil. He used materialism to explain the meaning of “Heaven” and affirmed that the development of objective things has its own laws and inevitable trends. After the Song Dynasty, the objective idealist philosophy of Cheng (Cheng Wei, Cheng Wei) Zhu (熹) and the subjective idealist philosophy of Lu (Xiangshan) Wang (Yang Ming) gradually became the official ruling thought. This is Song and Ming dynasty. The center of the struggle between materialism and idealism in this period is the relationship between "rationality" and "qi", "heart" and "object". Wang Anshi, Chen Liang, Ye Shi in the Song Dynasty, Wang Tingxiang in the Ming Dynasty, Wang Chuanshan and Yan Yuan in the late Ming and early Qing dynasties, and Dai Zhen in the Qing Dynasty were all materialists who opposed the idealism of "science." Historical materialists in the past have pushed forward the materialist philosophy in the struggle against idealism.
   In Chinese feudal society, there is also a dialectic and metaphysical struggle. On the one hand, there is a metaphysical method of thinking that "the sky is unchanged and the Tao is unchanged." It has long been supported by the feudal ruling class. On the other hand, the dialectical thinking of sports development and oppositeism is also developing. For example, Wang Chuanshan is a representative that combines simple dialectics with materialism to a large extent. From the perspective of internal contradictions, he demonstrates the absolute nature of the material world movement. Some idealist philosophers also have a certain degree of dialectical thinking.
   In the Middle Ages of Europe, it was the era of feudalism in which Catholicism dominated, and philosophy became the prostitute of theology. But within the scholastic philosophy that directly serves religion and the church, the struggle of nominalism against realism is still unfolding. Nominal theory holds that individual things exist before general concepts. This is to recognize that things are first nature and concepts are second nature, so Marx said: "Noname theory is one of the main components of British materialist theory. And generally speaking, it is the initial manifestation of materialism. 2 On the contrary, the realism is that the general concept exists before individual things and produces concrete things. The struggle between nominalism and realism is a manifestation of the struggle between materialism and idealism in the Middle Ages in Europe.
    1 See "Liuhe Dongji" 16 volumes "Tian Shuo", "Dream Collection" 12 volumes "Heaven Theory".
    2 Marx, Engels: "The Holy Family", in the second volume of the Complete Works of Marx and Engels, People's Publishing House, 1957, p. 163.
    
   Italy in Europe in the fifteenth century gave birth to capitalist relations within the feudal society. The emerging bourgeoisie economically demands the development of productive forces, the development of science and technology, and political opposition to feudal theocracy. Reflected in philosophical thinking, it forms a materialistic worldview that directly confronts feudal religious theology and idealism. At the end of the sixteenth century and the first half of the seventeenth century, Europe's industrial and commercial and scientific and cultural centers moved from Italy to Britain, the Netherlands and France. Materialistic philosophy has developed significantly in the UK. Its main representatives are Bacon, Hobbes and Locke. Bacon's main achievement is the first to give a naturalistic approach to the understanding of natural science, affirming that the true source of human knowledge is sensory experience, affirming the objective existence of matter and preliminarily estimating that motion is an intrinsic property of matter. However, Bacon and Locke brought metaphysical methods of thought into the field of philosophy and formed metaphysical materialism.
   The modern science of modern Europe began in the second half of the fifteenth century. In order to understand the regularity of various forms of movement in nature, natural scientists first collect materials from the natural world, and analyze these materials. For the study of organisms, an anatomical method is used to decompose the whole into parts. Study it. The natural sciences of this period, as Engels pointed out, were at the stage of collecting materials; this phase continued into the eighteenth century. This is the inevitable stage of the development of modern natural science, which prepares the foundation for the further development of the natural sciences in the future. "But this practice also leaves us with a habit of isolating things and processes in nature and opening up a wide range of general connections to investigate, so it is not seen as a sport, but as a Something that is static; it is not seen as something that changes in essence, but as something that is eternal; not as a living thing, but as a dead thing. This method of examining things is taken from Bacon and Locke from nature. After moving to philosophy in science, it has caused the limitations that have been unique in recent centuries, that is, the metaphysical way of thinking. "1 At the same time, at this stage, all departments of the natural sciences, besides mechanics and mathematics, are still Very imperfect, materialistic philosophy relies on the achievements of natural science to explain the world, and it cannot be restricted by the lack of development of natural science. This is an important reason why materialism before the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries could not be metaphysical and mechanistic.
   In the eighteenth century, after the British bourgeoisie gained political power, it abandoned the materialist philosophy and promoted idealist philosophy. The subjective idealist Archbishop Berkeley regards everything as a phantom that exists only in the realm of human perception, claiming that "existence is perceived." At this time, the center of the bourgeois revolution was transferred to France. Materialism became the ideological weapon of the French bourgeois revolution at the time. The outstanding representatives of French materialism in the eighteenth century were Latino, Diderot, Holbach, Aier maintenance, etc. They publicly proposed the atheism and the superstition against the immortality of the soul from the materialist point of view. They carried out the most determined ideological struggle against the religious worldview and feudal autocracy, and they developed metaphysical materialism.
   The metaphysical materialism of Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries has the following limitations. It is mechanical, it boils all movements into mechanical movements, trying to explain everything by purely mechanical reasons. It is metaphysical. It cannot understand the world as a process and understands it as a material world that is constantly evolving in history. Its view of social history is idealistic, and it regards human consciousness and opinions as the decisive force for the development of social history. These limitations of metaphysical materialism represent the class limitations of the bourgeoisie and are also determined by the state of scientific development at the time.
   The materialism of Britain and France in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the ideological preparation of the British-French bourgeois revolution and played a progressive revolutionary role in history.
   At the end of the eighteenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century, the bourgeois revolution was also brewing in Germany. At that time, the German economy was relatively backward, the capitalist economy was still underdeveloped, and the weak German bourgeoisie did not have enough courage to carry out a resolute revolutionary struggle against feudal rulers like the French bourgeoisie. The storm of struggle among the broad masses of working people set off by the French Revolution also frightened the German bourgeoisie. They feared that the proletariat and the working masses would grow up in the revolution and turn their guns to fire at the bourgeoisie. Under this circumstance, the ideological preparation of the German bourgeois revolution is not primarily manifested in materialism as philosophical, but as idealism with different degrees of dialectics. The dialectical thoughts in Kant's German classical idealism philosophy from Kant reflect Hegel's revolutionary requirements of the German bourgeoisie and the tremendous progress of the natural sciences at that time.
   Kant is the founding of German classical idealism philosophy. At this time, the natural science of experience has collected a large amount of information, and metaphysics cannot be sorted out based on the intrinsic link of these materials. The development of science itself requires the formation of a dialectical way of thinking, and the study of the overall connection and development of things. Engels pointed out that Kant’s theory of celestial evolution opened the gap in the metaphysical view of nature for the first time. However, dialectics only got a lot of development at Hegel.
   Hegel is the greatest representative of German classical idealism philosophy. Hegel believes that before the emergence of nature and human beings, there is a so-called "absolute concept", and that all phenomena in the world are derived from "absolute ideas." The characteristic of Hegel's objective idealism philosophy is to examine the "absolute concept" from the movement and from the dialectical development. Hegel opposes metaphysics with everything in the development of sports. Engels said: "Hegel's first time - this is his great feat - describes the entire natural, historical and spiritual world as a process, that is, describing it as a constant movement, change, transformation And in development, and attempt to reveal the inner connection between this movement and development." 1 Hegel is in the dialectics of concept, guessing the dialectics of things. His dialectic is in contradiction with his idealist system. Hegel believes that his own philosophical thinking is the manifestation of the self-consciousness of the "absolute concept" reaching the completion stage, which violates his own dialectical development. His dialectic is incomplete and suffocated within the idealist system.
    1 Engels: "Anti-Duhring", in the third volume of the Selected Works of Marx and Engels, People's Publishing House, 1972, 63 pages.
    
   In the 1940s, the situation of the German bourgeois revolution became increasingly mature, and the further development of class struggle was reflected in philosophy, the end of German classical idealism and the rise of materialism. Feuerbach is an outstanding materialist among the German bourgeois philosophers of the nineteenth century. He resolutely criticized Hegel's idealist philosophy and restored the authority of materialism. In the aspect of nature, he firmly defended the principle that matter is first nature and completely denied the spirit of being independent outside the material. But Feuerbach's materialism is still metaphysical and incomplete. He is still idealistic in his view of society. It does not reflect the revolutionary demands of the proletariat, which has now become an independent force and embarked on the political arena. What emerged from this requirement is the dialectical materialism and historical materialism philosophy founded by Marx and Engels.
   In the mid-nineteenth century, in the struggle against serfdom in Russia, the materialistic worldview of Russian revolutionary democracy emerged. Belinsky, Herzen, Chernyshevsky and Dubrovov have absorbed and developed Western advanced philosophical thoughts (Hegel's dialectics and Feuerbach's materialism, etc.), not only It is a revolutionary materialist and has a deep understanding of dialectics. However, due to the limitations of Russian historical conditions at that time, their philosophical thoughts did not, and could not reach, the height of Marx and Engels' dialectical materialism.
   The era of the Chinese bourgeois revolution did not come until the end of the 19th and early 20th centuries. From the bourgeois reformist movement of the Wuxu coup to the Revolution of 1911, there were many advanced thinkers who represented the demands of the bourgeois progress at the time, such as Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, Tan Yitong, Yan Fu, Sun Yat-sen and so on. They try to use the social and historical perspectives of the Western bourgeoisie and the various natural sciences they can learn to illustrate the world. Their worldviews contain varying degrees of materialistic tendencies, and they have struggled to varying degrees with the dominant stubborn conservative ideas of the time. However, because the newly created bourgeoisie in China, which was semi-feudal and semi-colonial, was particularly weak, and it entered an urgent political struggle as soon as it appeared, and lacked sufficient mental preparation, there was no mature bourgeois materialism in China. . Sun Yat-sen is the most outstanding representative of the Chinese bourgeois revolutionary. He is also mixed with materialism and idealism in his thoughts.
   In history, materialism has been continuously enriched and developed in the struggle with idealism. However, it is only when there is a modern big industry and the proletariat that a scientific Marxist worldview can be produced.
  
  
  

 
 
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